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Indiana State Department of Health

ISDH Home > About the Agency > Health Information by Topic - A-Z >> > Indoor and Radiologic Health > Laws and Rules > 410 IAC 5-4: Protection and Exposure Standards 410 IAC 5-4: Protection and Exposure Standards

410 IAC 5-4-1 Scope of rule

Sec. 1. (a) 410 IAC 5-4-1 establishes standards for protection against radiation hazards. Except as otherwise specifically provided, 410 IAC 5-4 applies to all licensees or registrants. It is the purpose of 410 IAC 5-4 to control the possession, use, and transfer of sources of radiation by any licensee or registrant in such a manner that the total dose to an individual does not exceed the standards of radiation protection prescribed in 410 IAC 5-4. Nothing in 410 IAC 5-4 shall be interpreted as limiting the intentional exposure of patients to radiation for the purpose of medical diagnosis or therapy.

(b) In addition to complying with the rules set forth in 410 IAC 5-4, every reasonable effort should be made to maintain radiation exposures, and releases of radioactive materials in effluents to unrestricted areas, as low as is reasonably achievable. The term "as low as is reasonably achievable" means as low as is reasonably achievable taking into account the state of technology, and the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socio-economic considerations, and in relation to the utilization of ionizing radiation in the public interest.

410 IAC 5-4-2 Radiation dose to individuals in restricted areas1/

Sec. 2. (a) In accordance with the provisions of 410 IAC 5-4-3(a), and except as provided in 410 IAC 5-4-2(b), no licensee or registrant shall possess, use, receive, or transfer sources of radiation in such a manner as to cause any individual in a restricted area to receive in any period of one calendar quarter from all sources of radiation in the licensee's or registrant's possession a total occupational dose in excess of the standards specified in the following table:

  Rems per Calendar Quarter
Whole body; head and trunk; active blood-forming organs; lens of eyes; or gonads 1 1/4
Hands and forearms; feet and ankles 18 3/4
Skin of whole body 7 1/2

1/ For determining the doses specified in 410 IAC 5-4-2 a dose from x or gamma rays up to 10 MeV may be assumed to be equivalent to the exposure measured by a properly calibrated appropriate instrument in air at or near the body surface in the region of the highest dose rate.

(b) A licensee or registrant may permit an individual in a restricted area to receive a total occupational dose to the whole body greater than that permitted under 410 IAC 5-4-2(a), provided:

(1) During any calendar quarter, the total occupational dose to the whole body from sources of radiation in the licensee's or registrant's possession shall not exceed 3 rems;

(2) The dose to the whole body, when added to the accumulated occupational dose to the whole body, shall not exceed 5(N-18) rems where "N" equals the individual's age in years at his last birthday; and

(3) The licensee or registrant has determined the individual's accumulated occupational dose to the whole body on board form "Y" or on a clear and legible record containing all the information required in that form and has otherwise complied with the requirements of 410 IAC 5-4-3. As used in 410 IAC 5-4-2(b), "dose to the whole body" shall be deemed to include any dose to the whole body, gonads, active bloodforming organs, head and trunk, or lens of eye.

410 IAC 5-4-3 Disclosure of prior exposure; certification for excess exposure (form Y)

Sec. 3. (a)(1) Each licensee or registrant shall require any individual, prior to first entry of the individual into the licensee's or registrant's restricted area during each employment or work assignment under such circumstances that the individual will receive or is likely to receive in any period of 1 calendar quarter an occupational dose in excess of 25 percent of the applicable standards specified in 410 IAC 5-4-2(a) and 410 IAC 5-4-5(a), to disclose in a written, signed statement, either:

(i) That the individual had no prior occupational dose during the current calendar quarter, or

(ii) The nature and amount of any occupational dose which the individual may have received during the specifically identified current calendar quarter, from sources of radiation possessed or controlled by other persons.

(2) Each licensee or registrant shall maintain records of such statements until the board authorizes disposition.

(b) Before permitting, pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-2(b), any individual in a restricted area to receive an occupational radiation dose in excess of the standards specified in 410 IAC 5-4-2(a), each licensee or registrant shall:

(1) obtain a certificate on board form "Y" or on a clear and legible record containing all the information required in that form, signed by the individual, showing each period of time after the individual attained the age of 18 in which the individual received an occupational dose of radiation; and

(2) calculate on board form "Y" in accordance with the instructions appearing therein, or on a clear and legible record containing all the information required in that form, the previously accumulated occupational dose received by the individual and the additional dose allowed for that individual under 410 IAC 5-4-2(b).

(c)(1) In the preparation of board form "Y," or a clear and legible record containing all the information required in that form, the licensee or registrant shall make a reasonable effort to obtain reports of the individual's previously accumulated occupational dose. For each period for which the licensee or registrant obtains such reports, he shall use the dose shown in the report in preparing the form. In any case where a licensee or registrant is unable to obtain reports of the individual's occupational dose for a previous complete calendar quarter, it shall be assumed that the individual has received the occupational dose specified in whichever of the following columns that apply:

 

Column 1

Column 2

Part of Body

Assumed Dose in Rems for Calendar Quarters Prior to January 1, 1961

Assumed Dose in Rems for Calendar Quarters Beginning on or After January 1, 1961

Whole body, gonads, active blood-forming organs, head and trunk, lens of eye

(2) The licensee or registrant shall retain and preserve records used in preparing board form "Y" until the board authorizes their disposition. If calculation of the individual's accumulated occupational dose for all periods prior to January 1, 1961, yields a result higher than the applicable accumulated dose value for the individual as of that date, as specified in 410 IAC 5-4-2(b)(2), the excess may be disregarded.

410 IAC 5-4-4 Airborne radiation exposure; restricted areas

Sec. 4. (a)(1) No licensee or registrant shall possess, use, or transfer radioactive material in such a manner as to permit any individual in a restricted area to inhale a quantity of radioactive material in any period of 1 calendar quarter greater than the quantity which would result from inhalation for 40 hours per week for 13 weeks at uniform concentrations of radioactive material in air specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 1.2/3/4/ If the radioactive material is of such form that intake by absorption through the skin is likely, individual exposures to radioactive material shall be controlled so that the uptake of radioactive material by any organ from either inhalation or absorption or both routes of intake5/6/ in any calendar quarter does not exceed that which would result from inhaling such radioactive material for 40 hours per week for 13 weeks at uniform concentrations specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 1.

(2) No licensee or registrant shall possess, use, or transfer mixtures of U-234, U-235, and U-238 in soluble form in such a manner as to permit any individual in a restricted area to inhale a quantity of such material in excess of the intake limits specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 1. If such soluble uranium is of a form such that absorption through the skin is likely, individual exposures to such material shall be controlled so that the uptake of such material by any organ from either inhalation or absorption or both routes of intake5/ does not exceed that which would result from inhaling such material at the limits specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 1 and footnote 5 thereto.

(3) For purposes of determining compliance with the requirements of 410 IAC 5-4-4 the licensee or registrant shall use suitable measurements of concentrations of radioactive material in air for detecting and evaluating airborne radioactivity in restricted areas and in addition, as appropriate, shall use measurements of radioactivity in the body, measurements of radioactivity excreted from the body or any combination of such measurements as may be necessary for timely detection and assessment of individual intakes of radioactivity by exposed individuals. It is assumed that an individual inhales radioactive material at the airborne concentration in which he is present unless he uses respiratory protective equipment pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-4(c). When assessment of a particular individual's intake of radioactive material is necessary, intakes less than those which would result from inhalation for 2 hours in any 1 day or for 10 hours in any 1 week at uniform concentrations specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 1 need not be included in such assessment, provided that for any assessment in excess of these amounts the entire amount is included.

2/ Since the concentration specified for tritium oxide vapor assumes equal intakes by skin absorption and inhalation, the total intake permitted is twice that which would result from inhalation alone at the concentration specified in H-3 (S) in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 1 for 40 hours per week for 13 weeks.

3/ For radon-222, the limiting quantity is that inhaled in a period of one calendar year. For radioactive material designated "Sub" in the "Isotope" column of the table, the concentration value specified is based upon exposure to the material as an external radiation source. Individual exposures to these materials may be accounted for as part of the limitation on individual dose in 410 IAC 5-4-2. These materials shall be subject to the precautionary procedures required in 410 IAC 5-4-4(b)(1).

4/ Multiply the concentration values specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 1 by 6.3 x 108 milliliters to obtain the quarterly quantity limit. Multiply the concentration value specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 1 by 2.5 x 109 milliliters to obtain the annual quantity limit for Rn-222.

5/ Significant intake by ingestion or injection is presumed to occur only as a result of circumstances such as accident, inadvertence, poor procedure, or similar special conditions. Such intakes must be evaluated and accounted for by techniques and procedures as may be appropriate to the circumstances of the occurrence. Exposures so evaluated shall be included in determining whether the limitation on individual exposures in 410 IAC 5-4-4(a)(1) has been exceeded.

6/ Regulatory guidance on assessment of individual intakes of radioactive material is given in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 8.9, "Acceptable Concepts, Models, Equations and Assumptions for a Bioassay Program." Single copies of Regulatory Guide 8.9 are available from the Office of Standards Development, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. 20555, upon written request.

(b)(1) The licensee or registrant shall, as a precautionary procedure, use process or other engineering controls, to the extent practicable, to limit concentrations of radioactive materials in air to levels below those which delimit an airborne radioactivity area as defined in 410 IAC 5-1-2.

(2) When it is impracticable to apply process or other engineering controls to limit concentrations of radioactive material in air below those defined in 410 IAC 5-1-2, other precautionary procedures, such as increased surveillance, limitation of working times, or provision of respiratory protective equipment, shall be used to maintain intake of radioactive material by any individual within any period of 7 consecutive days as far below that intake of radioactive material which would result from inhalation of such material for 40 hours at the uniform concentrations specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 1 as is reasonably achievable. Whenever the intake of radioactive material by any individual exceeds this 40-hour control measure, the licensee shall make such evaluations and take such actions as are necessary to assure against recurrence. The licensee shall maintain records of such occurrences, evaluations, and actions taken in a clear and readily identifiable form suitable for summary review and evaluation.

(c) When respiratory protective equipment is used to limit the inhalation of airborne radioactive material pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-4(b)(2), the licensee may make allowance for such use in estimating exposures of individuals to such materials provided that such equipment is used as stipulated in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 8.15, "Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection."7/

7/ Single copies of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 8.15 are available from the Office of Standards Development, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. 20555, upon written request.

(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of 410 IAC 5-4-4(b) and (c), the board may impose further restrictions:

(1) On the extent to which a licensee may make allowance for use of respirators in lieu of provision of process, containment, ventilation, or other engineering controls, if application of such controls is found to be practicable; and

(2) As might be necessary to assure that the respiratory protective program of the licensee is adequate in limiting exposures of personnel to airborne radioactive material.

(e) The licensee or registrant shall notify, in writing, the board at least 30 days before the date that respiratory protective equipment is first used under the provisions of 410 IAC 5-4-4.

(f) A licensee or registrant who is authorized to make allowance for use of respiratory protective equipment shall bring his respiratory protective program into conformance with the requirements of 410 IAC 5-4-4(c) within 1 year.

410 IAC 5-4-5 Exposure of minors8/

Sec. 5. (a) No licensee or registrant shall possess, use, or transfer sources of radiation in such a manner as to cause any individual within a restricted area, who is under 18 years of age, to receive in any period of 1 calendar quarter from all sources of radiation in such licensee's or registrant's possession a dose in excess of 10 percent of the standards specified in the table in 410 IAC 5-4-2(a).

(b) No licensee or registrant shall possess, use, or transfer radioactive material in such a manner as to cause any individual within a restricted area, who is under 18 years of age to be exposed to airborne radioactive material in an average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table II. For purposes of this paragraph, concentrations may be averaged over periods not greater than a week.

(c) The provisions of 410 IAC 5-4-4(b)(2) and 410 IAC 5-4-4(c) shall apply to exposures subject to 410 IAC 5-4-5(b) except that the references in 410 IAC 5-4-4(b)(2) and 410 IAC 5-4-4(c) to Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 1 shall be deemed to be references to Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table II, Column 1.

8/ For determining the doses specified in 410 IAC 5-4-5, a dose from x or gamma radiation up to 10 MeV may be assumed to be equivalent to the exposure measured by a properly calibrated appropriate instrument in air at or near the body surface in the region of the highest dose rate.

410 IAC 5-4-6 Permissible levels of radiation from external sources in unrestricted areas9/

Sec. 6. (a) Except as authorized by the board pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-6(b) no licensee or registrant shall possess, use, or transfer sources of radiation in such a manner as to create in any unrestricted area from such sources of radiation in his possession:

(1) Radiation levels which, if an individual were continuously present in the area, could result in his receiving a dose in excess of 2 millirems in any 1 hour; or

(2) Radiation levels which, if an individual were continuously present in the area could result in his receiving a dose in excess of 100 millirems in any 7 consecutive days.

(b) Any person may apply to the board for proposed limits upon levels of radiation in unrestricted areas in excess of those specified in 410 IAC 5-4-6(a) resulting from the applicant's possession or use of sources of radiation. Such applications should include information as to anticipated average radiation levels and anticipated occupancy times for each unrestricted area involved. The board will approve the proposed limits if the applicant demonstrates to the satisfaction of the board that the proposed limits are not likely to cause any individual to receive a dose to the whole body in any period of 1 calendar year in excess of 0.5 rem.

9/ It is the intent of 410 IAC 5-4-6 to limit radiation levels so that it is unlikely that individuals in unrestricted areas would receive a dose to the whole body in excess of 0.5 rem in any one year. If in specific instances, it is determined by the board that this intent is not met, the board may, pursuant to 410 IAC 5-1-7, impose such additional requirements on the licensee or registrant as may be necessary to meet the intent.

410 IAC 5-4-7 Effluent concentration limits in unrestricted areas

Sec. 7. (a) A licensee or registrant shall not possess, use, or transfer licensed material so as to release to an unrestricted area radioactive material in concentrations which exceed the limits specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table II, except as authorized pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-17 or 410 IAC 5-4-7(b). For purposes of 410 IAC 5-4-7, concentrations may be averaged over a period not greater than 1 year.

(b) An application for a license or amendment may include proposed limits higher than those specified in 410 IAC 5-4-7(a). The board will approve the proposed limits if the applicant demonstrates:

(1) That the applicant has made a reasonable effort to minimize the radioactivity contained in effluents to unrestricted areas; and

(2) That it is not likely that radioactive material discharged in the effluent would result in the exposure of an individual to concentrations of radioactive material in air or water exceeding the limits specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table II.

(c) An application for higher limits pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-7(b) shall include information demonstrating that the applicant has made a reasonable effort to minimize the radioactivity discharged in effluents to unrestricted areas, and shall include, as pertinent:

(1) Information as to flow rates, total volume of effluent, peak concentration of each radionuclide in the effluent, and concentration of each radionuclide in the effluent averaged over a period of 1 year at the point where the effluent leaves a stack, tube, pipe, or similar conduit;

(2) A description of the properties of the effluents, including:

(i) Chemical composition,

(ii) Physical characteristics, including suspended solids content in liquid effluents, and nature of gas or aerosol for air effluents,

(iii) The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) of liquid effluents, and

(iv) The size range of particulates in effluents released into air;

(3) A description of the anticipated human occupancy in the unrestricted area where the highest concentration of radioactive material from the effluent is expected, and, in the case of a river or stream, a description of water uses downstream from the point of release of the effluent;

(4) Information as to the highest concentration of each radionuclide in an unrestricted area, including anticipated concentrations averaged over a period of 1 year:

(i) In air at any point of human occupancy, or

(ii) In water at points of use downstream from the point of release of the effluent;

(5) The background concentration of radionuclides in the receiving river or stream prior to the release of liquid effluent;

(6) A description of the environmental monitoring equipment, including sensitivity of the system, and procedures and calculations to determine concentrations of radionuclides in the unrestricted area and possible reconcentrations of radionuclides; and

(7) A description of the waste treatment facilities and procedures used to reduce the concentration of radionuclides in effluents prior to their release.

(d) For the purposes of 410 IAC 5-4-7, the concentration limits in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table II, shall apply at the boundary of the restricted area. The concentration of radioactive material discharged through a stack, pipe or similar conduit may be determined with respect to the point where the material leaves the conduit. If the conduit discharges within the restricted area, the concentration at the boundary may be determined by applying appropriate factors for dilution, dispersion, or decay between the point of discharge and the boundary.

(e) In addition to limiting concentrations in effluent streams, the board may limit quantities of radioactive material released in air or water during a specified period of time if it appears that the daily intake of radioactive material from air, water, or food by a suitable sample of an exposed population group, averaged over a period not exceeding 1 year, would otherwise exceed the daily intake resulting from continuous exposure to air or water containing one-third (1/3) the concentration of radioactive material specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table II.

(f) The provisions of 410 IAC 5-4-7 do not apply to disposal of radioactive material into sanitary sewerage systems, which is governed by 410 IAC 5-4-18.

(g) In addition to other requirements of this part [410 IAC 5-4], licensees engaged in uranium fuel cycle operations subject to the provisions of 410 IAC 5-3-13 shall also comply with the provisions of 40 CFR Part 190, "Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations."

410 IAC 5-4-8 Bioassay services

Sec. 8. Where necessary or desirable in order to aid in determining the extent of an individual's exposure to concentrations of radioactive material, the board may incorporate license provisions or issue an order requiring a licensee or registrant to make available to the individual appropriate bioassay services and to furnish a copy of the reports of such services to the board.

410 IAC 5-4-9 Surveys

Sec. 9. Each licensee or registrant shall make or cause to be made such surveys as may be necessary for him to establish compliance with 410 IAC 5.

410 IAC 5-4-10 Personnel monitoring requirements9.5/

Sec. 10. Each licensee or registrant shall supply appropriate personnel monitoring equipment to, and shall require the use of such equipment by:

(a) Each individual who enters a restricted area under such circumstances that he receives, or is likely to receive, a dose in any calendar quarter in excess of 25 percent of the applicable value specified in 410 IAC 5-4-2(a);

(b) Each individual under 18 years of age who enters a restricted area under such circumstances that he receives, or is likely to receive, a dose in any calendar quarter in excess of 5 percent of the applicable value specified in 410 IAC 5-4-2(a);

(c) Each individual who enters a high radiation area.

9.5/ After July 1, 1984, all required personnel monitoring equipment must be obtained from personnel dosimetry processors having an accreditation program approved by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) of the National Bureau of Standards.

410 IAC 5-4-11 Caution signs and labels; alarm signals

Sec. 11. (a) General.

(1) Except as otherwise authorized by the board, symbols prescribed by 410 IAC 5-4-11 shall use the conventional radiation caution colors (magenta or purple on yellow background). The symbol prescribed by this section is the conventional three-blade design:

1

(A) Cross-hatch area is to be magenta or purple.

(B) Background is to be yellow.

(2) In addition to the contents of signs and labels prescribed in this section, a licensee or registrant may provide on or near such signs and labels any additional information which may be appropriate in aiding individuals to minimize exposure to radiation.

(b) Radiation Areas. Each radiation area shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION10/

RADIATION AREA

(c) High Radiation Areas.

(1) Each high radiation area shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION10/

HIGH RADIATION AREA

(2) Each entrance or access point to a high radiation area shall be:

(i) Equipped with a control device which shall cause the level of radiation to be reduced below that at which an individual might receive a dose of 100 millirems in 1 hour upon entry into the area; or

(ii) Equipped with a control device which shall energize a conspicuous visible or audible alarm signal in such a manner that the individual entering the high radiation area and the licensee or a supervisor of the activity are made aware of the entry; or

(iii) Maintained locked except during periods when access to the area is required, with positive control over each individual entry.

(3) The controls required by 410 IAC 5-4-11(c)(2) shall be established in such a way that no individual will be prevented from leaving a high radiation area.

(4) In the case of a high radiation area established for a period of 30 days or less, direct surveillance to prevent unauthorized entry may be substituted for the controls required by 410 IAC 5-4-11(c)(2).

(5) Any licensee or registrant may apply to the board for approval of methods not included in 410 IAC 5-4-11(c)(2) and (4) for controlling access to high radiation areas. The board will approve the proposed alternatives if the licensee or registrant demonstrates that the alternative methods of control will prevent unauthorized entry into a high radiation area, and that the requirement of 410 IAC 5-4-11(c)(3) is met.

(6) Each area in which there may exist radiation levels in excess of 500 rems in 1 hour at 1 meter from a sealed radioactive source that is used to irradiate materials shall have entry control devices and alarms meeting the criteria specified in Section 20.203(c)(6) of 10 CFR Part 20.

(7) The requirements of 410 IAC 5-4-11(c)(6) shall not apply to radioactive sources that are used in teletherapy, industrial radiography, or in completely self-contained irradiators. In the case of open field irradiators in which certain of the criteria specified in 410 IAC 5-4-11(c)(6) are impracticable, equivalent protection shall be provided by license conditions.

(d) Airborne Radioactivity Areas. Each airborne radioactivity area shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION10/

AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA

(e) Additional Requirements.

(1) Each area or room in which any radioactive material, other than natural uranium or thorium, is used or stored in an amount exceeding 10 times the quantity of radioactive material specified in Appendix B, 410 IAC 5-4-28, shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION10/

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

(2) Each area or room in which natural uranium or thorium is used or stored in an amount exceeding 100 times the quantity specified in Appendix B, 410 IAC 5-4-28, shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION10/

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

(f) Containers.

(1) Except as provided in 410 IAC 5-4-11(f)(3) each container of radioactive material shall bear a durable, clearly visible label identifying the radioactive contents.

(2) A label required pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-11(f)(1) shall bear the radiation caution symbol and the words:

CAUTION10/

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

It shall also provide sufficient information11/ to permit individuals handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity thereof, to take precautions to avoid or minimize exposures.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of 410 IAC 5-4-11(f)(1) labeling is not required:

(i) For containers that do not contain radioactive material in quantities greater than the applicable quantities listed in Appendix B, 410 IAC 5-4-28;

(ii) For containers containing only natural uranium or thorium in quantities no greater than 10 times the applicable quantities listed in Appendix B, 410 IAC 5-4-28;

(iii) For containers that do not contain radioactive material in concentrations greater than the applicable concentrations listed in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 2;

(iv) For containers when they are attended by an individual who takes the precautions necessary to prevent the exposure of any individual to radiation or radioactive material in excess of the limits established by 410 IAC 5-4;

(v) For containers when they are in transport and packaged and labeled in accordance with regulations published by the U.S. Department of Transportation;

(vi) For containers which are accessible only to individuals authorized to handle or use them12/ or to work in the vicinity thereof, provided that the contents are identified to such individuals by a readily available written record; and

(vii) For manufacturing and process equipment such as piping and tanks.

(4) Each licensee or registrant shall, prior to disposal of an empty uncontaminated container to unrestricted areas, remove or deface the radioactive material label or otherwise clearly indicate that the container no longer contains radioactive material.

(g) All radiation machines shall be labeled in a manner which cautions individuals that radiation is produced when the machine is being operated.

10/ Or "Danger."

11/ As appropriate, the information will include radiation levels, kinds of material, estimate of activity, date for which activity is estimated, etc.

12/ For example, containers in locations such as water-filled canals, storage vaults, or hot cells.

410 IAC 5-4-12 Exceptions to posting requirements

Sec. 12. Notwithstanding the provisions of 410 IAC 5-4-11:

(a) A room or area is not required to be posted with a caution sign because of the presence of a sealed source, provided the radiation level 12 inches from the surface of the source container or housing does not exceed 5 millirem per hour.

(b) Rooms or other areas in hospitals are not required to be posted with caution signs, and control of entrance or access thereto pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-11(c) is not required, because of the presence of patients containing radioactive material provided that there are personnel in attendance who will take the precautions necessary to prevent the exposure of any individual to radiation or radioactive material in excess of the limits established in 410 IAC 5-4.

(c) Caution signs are not required to be posted in areas or rooms containing radioactive material for periods of less than 8 hours provided that (1) the material is constantly attended during such periods by an individual who shall take the precautions necessary to prevent the exposure of any individual to radiation or radioactive material in excess of the limits established in 410 IAC 5-4, and (2) such area or room is subject to the licensee's or registrant's control.

(d) A room or other area is not required to be posted with a caution sign, and control is not required for each entrance or access point to a room or other area which is a high radiation area solely because of the presence of radioactive material prepared for transport and packaged and labeled in accordance with regulations of the U.S. Department of Transportation.

410 IAC 5-4-13 Instruction of personnel

Sec. 13. Instructions required for individuals working in or frequenting any portion of a restricted area are specified in 410 IAC 5-10-3.

410 IAC 5-4-14 Storage of radiation sources

Sec. 14. (a) Sources of radiation shall be secured against unauthorized removal from the place of storage.

(b) Sources of radiation in an unrestricted area and not in storage shall be tended under the constant surveillance and immediate control of the licensee or registrant.

410 IAC 5-4-15 Procedures for receiving packages

Sec. 15. (a)(1) Each licensee or registrant who expects to receive a package containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of the Type A quantities specified in the table of exempt and type A quantities in this section shall:

(i) Make arrangements to receive the package when it is offered for delivery by the carrier if the package is to be delivered to the licensee's or registrant's facility by the carrier; or

(ii) Make arrangements to receive notification from the carrier of the arrival of the package, at the time of arrival if the package is to be picked up by the licensee or registrant at the carrier's terminal.

(2) Each licensee or registrant who picks up a package of radioactive material from a carrier's terminal shall pick up the package expeditiously upon receipt of notification from the carrier of its arrival.

(b)(1) Each licensee or registrant, upon receipt of a package of radioactive material, shall monitor the external surfaces of the package for radioactive contamination caused by leakage of the radioactive contents. The monitoring shall be performed as soon as practicable after receipt, but no later than 3 hours after the package is received at the licensee's facility if received during the licensee's normal working hours or 18 hours if received after normal working hours. Such monitoring need not be performed on:

(i) Packages containing no more than the exempt quantity specified in the table of exempt and type A quantities in this section;

(ii) Packages containing no more than 10 millicuries of radioactive material consisting solely of tritium, carbon-14, sulfur-35, or iodine-125;

(iii) Packages containing only radioactive material as gases or in special form;

(iv) Packages containing only radioactive material in other than liquid form, including Mo-99/Tc-99m generators, and not exceeding the Type A quantity limit specified in the table following 410 IAC 5-4-15(b); and

(v) Packages containing only radionuclides with half-lives of less than 30 days and a total quantity of no more than 100 millicuries.

(2) If removable radioactive contamination in excess of 0.01 microcurie (22,200 transformations per minute) per 100 square centimeters of package surface is found on the external surfaces of the package, the licensee or registrant shall immediately notify by telephone or mailagram, the final delivering carrier and the board.

Table of Exempt and Type A Quantities

Transport Group 13/

Exempt Quantity Limit (Millicuries)

Type A Quantity Limit (Curies)

I

0.01

0.001

II

0.1

0.050

III

1

3

IV

1

20

V

1

20

VI

1

1,000

VII

25,000

1,000

Special form 13/

1

20

13/The definitions of "transport group" and "special form" are specified in 410 IAC 5-1-2.

(c)(1) Each licensee or registrant, upon receipt of a package containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of the Type A quantities specified in the table of exempt and type A quantities above, other than those transported by exclusive use vehicle, shall monitor the radiation levels external to the package. The package shall be monitored as soon as practicable after receipt, but no later than three hours after the package is received at the licensee's facility if received during the licensee's normal working hours or 18 hours if received after normal working hours.

(2) If radiation levels are found on the external surface of the package in excess of 200 millirems per hour, or in excess of 10 millirems per hour at 3 feet from the external surface of the package, the licensee or registrant shall immediately notify, by telephone and telegraph, the final delivering carrier and the board.

(d) Each licensee or registrant shall establish and maintain procedures for safely opening packages in which radioactive material is received and shall assure that such procedures are followed and that due consideration is given to special instructions for the type of package being opened.

410 IAC 5-4-16 Waste disposal; general provisions

Sec. 16. General Requirement. No licensee or registrant shall dispose of any radioactive material except:

(a) By transfer to an authorized recipient as provided in 410 IAC 5-3-22, or

(b) As authorized pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-7, 410 IAC 5-4-17, 410 IAC 5-4-18 or 410 IAC 5-4-19.

410 IAC 5-4-17 Approval of proposed disposal procedures

Sec. 17. (a) Any person may apply to the board for approval of proposed procedures to dispose of radioactive material in a manner not otherwise authorized in this section. Each application shall include a description of the radioactive material, including the quantities and kinds of radioactive material and levels of radioactivity involved, and the proposed manner and conditions of disposal. The application, where appropriate, should also include an analysis and evaluation of pertinent information as to the nature of the environment, including topographical, geological, meterological, and hydrological characteristics; usage of ground and surface waters in the general area; the nature and location of other potentially affected facilities; and procedures to be observed to minimize the risk of unexpected or hazardous exposures.

(b) The board will not approve any application for a license to receive radioactive material from other persons for disposal on land not owned by a state or the federal government.

410 IAC 5-4-18 Release into sanitary sewerage system

Sec. 18. (a) No licensee or registrant shall discharge radioactive material into a sanitary sewerage system unless:

(1) it is readily soluble or dispersible in water;

(2) the quantity of any radioactive material released into the system by the licensee in any one day does not exceed the larger of:

(i) The quantity which, if diluted by the average daily quantity of sewage released into the sewer by the licensee, will result in an average concentration not greater than the limits specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 2, or

(ii) 10 times the quantity of such material specified in Appendix B, 410 IAC 5-4-28;

(3) The quantity of any radioactive material released in any one month, if diluted by the average monthly quantity of water released by the licensee, will not result in an average concentration exceeding the limits specified in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table I, Column 2; and

(4) The gross quantity of radioactive material, excluding hydrogen-3 and carbon-14, released into the sewage system by the licensee does not exceed 1 curie per year. The quantities of hydrogen-3 and carbon-14 released into the sanitary sewage system may not exceed 5 curies per year for hydrogen-3 and 1 curie per year for carbon-14.

(b) No licensee or registrant shall discharge radioactive material into an individual sewage disposal system used for the treatment of wastewater serving only a single dwelling, office building, industrial plant, or institution except as specifically approved by the board pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-7 and 410 IAC 5-4-17.

(c) Excreta from individuals undergoing medical diagnosis or therapy with radioactive material shall be exempt from any limitations contained in 410 IAC 5-4-18.

410 IAC 5-4-19 Burial in soil

Sec. 19. No licensee shall dispose of radioactive material by burial in soil except as specifically approved by the board pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-17.

410 IAC 5-4-20 Incineration

Sec. 20. No licensee shall incinerate radioactive material for the purpose of disposal or preparation for disposal except as specifically approved by the board pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-7 and 410 IAC 5-4-17.

410 IAC 5-4-20.5 Exceptions to disposal requirements

Sec. 20.5. (a) Any licensee or registrant may dispose of the following radioactive material without regard to its radioactivity:

(1) 0.05 microcurie or less of hydrogen-3 or carbon-14 per gram of medium used for liquid scintillation counting, and

(2) 0.05 microcurie or less of hydrogen-3 or carbon-14 per gram of animal tissue averaged over the weight of the entire animal; provided, however, tissue may not be disposed of under 410 IAC 5-4-20.5 in a manner that would permit its use either as food for humans or as animal feed.

(b) Nothing in 410 IAC 5-4-20.5(a), however, relieves the licensee or registrant of maintaining records showing the receipt, transfer and disposal of such radioactive material as specified in 410 IAC 5-1-4.

(c) Nothing in 410 IAC 5-4-20.5(a) relieves the licensee or registrant from complying with other applicable federal, state, and local rules and regulations governing any other toxic or hazardous property of these materials.

410 IAC 5-4-21 Recordkeeping requirements

Sec. 21. (a) Each licensee or registrant shall maintain records showing the radiation exposures of all individuals for whom personnel monitoring is required under 410 IAC 5-4-10. Such records shall be kept on board form "Z", in accordance with the instructions contained in that form, or on clear and legible records containing all the information required by board form "Z". The doses entered on the forms or records shall be for periods of time not exceeding 1 calendar quarter.

(b) Each licensee or registrant shall maintain records in the same units used in 410 IAC 5-4, showing the results of surveys required by 410 IAC 5-4-9, monitoring required by 410 IAC 5-4-15(b) and (c), and disposals made under 410 IAC 5-4-17, 410 IAC 5-4-18, and 410 IAC 5-4-19.

(c)(1) Records of individual exposure to radiation and to radioactive material which must be maintained pursuant to the provisions of 410 IAC 5-4-21(a) and records of bioassays, including results of whole body counting examinations, made pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-8 shall be preserved until the board authorizes their disposition.

(2) Records of the results of surveys and monitoring which must be maintained pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-21(b) shall be preserved for 2 years after the completion of the survey except that the following records shall be maintained until the board authorizes their disposition:

(i) records of the results of surveys to determine compliance with 410 IAC 5-4-4(a);

(ii) in the absence of personnel monitoring data, records of the results of surveys to determine external radiation dose; and

(iii) records of the results of surveys used to evaluate the release of radioactive effluents to the environment.

(3) Records of disposal of licensed material made pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-17, 410 IAC 5-4-18 or 410 IAC 5-4-19 shall be maintained until the board authorizes their disposition.

(4) Records which must be maintained pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-21 may be the original or a reproduced copy or microform if such reproduced copy or microform is duly authenticated by authorized personnel and the microform is capable of producing a clear and legible copy after storage for the period specified by board rules.

(5) If there is a conflict between the board's rules in 410 IAC 5-4-21, license condition, or other written board approval or authorization pertaining to the retention period for the same type of record, the retention period specified in the rules in 410 IAC 5-4-21 for such records shall apply unless the board, pursuant to 410 IAC 5-1-3(a), has granted a specific exemption from the record retention requirements specified in 410 IAC 5-4-21.

(d) The discontinuance of, or curtailment of, activities does not relieve the licensee or registrant of responsibility for retaining all records required by 410 IAC 5-4-21. A licensee or registrant may, however, request the board to accept such records. The acceptance of the records by the board relieves the licensee or registrant of subsequent responsibility only in respect to their preservation as required by 410 IAC 5-4-21.

410 IAC 5-4-22 Theft or loss of sources; reporting

Sec. 22. Each licensee or registrant shall report by telephone or mailgram to the board the theft or loss of any source of radiation immediately after such occurrence becomes known.

410 IAC 5-4-23 Incident reports

Sec. 23. (a) Immediate Notification. Each licensee or registrant shall immediately notify the board by telephone and telegraph of any incident involving any source of radiation possessed by him and which may have caused or threatens to cause:

(1) a dose to the whole body of any individual of 25 rems or more of radiation; a dose to the skin of the whole body of any individual of 150 rems or more of radiation; or a dose to the feet, ankles, hands, or forearms of any individual of 375 rems or more of radiation; or

(2) the release of radioactive material in concentrations which, if averaged over a period of 24 hours, would exceed 5,000 times the limits specified for such materials in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table II; or

(3) a loss of 1 working week or more of the operation of any facilities affected; or

(4) damage to property in excess of $200,000.

(b) Twenty-four Hour Notification. Each licensee or registrant shall within 24 hours notify the board by telephone or mailgram of any incident involving any source of radiation possessed by him and which may have caused or threatens to cause:

(1) A dose to the whole body of any individual of 5 rems or more of radiation; a dose to the skin of the whole body of any individual of 30 rems or more of radiation; or a dose to the feet, ankles, hands, or forearms of 75 rems or more of radiation; or

(2) The release of radioactive material in concentrations which, if averaged over a period of 24 hours, would exceed 500 times the limits specified for such materials in Appendix A, 410 IAC 5-4-27, Table II; or

(3) A loss of 1 day or more of the operation of any facilities affected; or

(4) Damage to property in excess of $2,000.

(c) Any report filed with the board pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-23 shall be prepared in such a manner that names of individuals who have received excessive doses will be stated in a separate part of the report.

410 IAC 5-4-24 Overexposure reports

Sec. 24. (a) In addition to any notification required by 410 IAC 5-4-23, each licensee or registrant shall make a report in writing within 30 days to the board of:

(1) each exposure of an individual to radiation in excess of the applicable standards in 410 IAC 5-4-2 or 410 IAC 5-4-5(a) or the license;

(2) each exposure of an individual to radioactive material in excess of the applicable limits in 410 IAC 5-4-4(a)(1), 410 IAC 5-4-4(a)(2), 410 IAC 5-4-5(b) or the license;

(3) levels of radiation or concentrations of radioactive material in a restricted area in excess of any other applicable limit in the license;

(4) any incident for which notification is required by 410 IAC 5-4-23; and

(5) levels of radiation or concentrations of radioactive material, whether or not involving excessive exposure of any individual, in an unrestricted area in excess of 10 times any applicable limit set forth in this part [410 IAC 5-4] or in the license.

(b) Each report required under 410 IAC 5-4-24 shall describe the extent of exposure of individuals to radiation or to radioactive material, including estimates of each individual's exposure as required by 410 IAC 5-4-24; levels of radiation and concentrations of radioactive material involved; the cause of the exposure, levels or concentrations; and corrective steps taken or planned to assure against a recurrence.

(c) Any report filed with the board pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-24 shall include for each individual exposed the name, social security number, and the date of birth, and an estimate of the individual's dose. The report shall be prepared so that this information is stated in a separate part of the report.

410 IAC 5-4-25 Vacating premises; decontamination

Sec. 25. Each specific licensee or registrant shall, no less than 30 days before vacating or relinquishing possession or control of premises which may have been contaminated with radioactive material as a result of his activities, notify the board in writing of intent to vacate. When deemed necessary by the board, the licensee or registrant shall decontaminate the premises in such a manner as the board may specify.

410 IAC 5-4-26 Notice and report to exposed individuals

Sec. 26. (a) Requirements for notification and reports to individuals of exposure to radiation or radioactive material are specified in 410 IAC 5-10-4.

(b) When a licensee or registrant is required pursuant to 410 IAC 5-4-24 to report to the board any exposure of an individual to radiation or radioactive material, the licensee or registrant shall also notify the individual. Such notice shall be transmitted at a time not later than the transmittal to the board, and shall comply with the provisions of 410 IAC 5-10-4(a).

410 IAC 5-4-27 Concentrations in air and water above natural background; Appendix A

Sec. 27.

APPENDIX A

CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AND WATER ABOVE NATURAL BACKGROUND

     

Table I

Table II

Element (atomic number) Isotope1/  

Column 1 Air (µCi/ml)

Column 2 Water (µCi/ml)

Column 1 Air (µCi/ml)

Column 2 Water (µCi/ml)

Actinium (89) Ac-227 S 20x10-12 6x10-5 8x10-14 2x10-6
I 3x10-11 9x10-3 9x10-13 3x10-4
Ac-228 S 8x10-8 3x10-3 3x10-9 9x10-5
I 2x10-8 3x10-3 6x10-10 9x10-5
Americium (95) Am-241 S 6x10-12 1x10-4 2x10-13 4x10-6
I 1x10-10 8x10-4 4x10-12 3x10-5
Am-242m S 6x10-12 1x10-4 2x10-13 4x10-6
I 3x10-10 3x10-3 9x10-12 9x10-5
Am-242 S 4x10-8 4x10-3 1x10-9 1x10-4
I 5x10-8 4x10-3 2x10-9 1x10-4
Am-243 S 6x10-12 1x10-4 2x10-13 4x10-6
I 1x10-10 8x10-4 4x10-12 3x10-5
Am-244 S 4x10-6 1x10-1 1x10-7 5x10-3
I 2x10-5 1x10-1 8x10-7 5x10-3
Antimony (51) Sb-122 S 2x10-7 8x10-4 6x10-9 3x10-5
I 1x10-7 8x10-4 5x10-9 3x10-5
Sb-124 S 2x10-7 7x10-4 5x10-9 2x10-5
I 2x10-8 7x10-4 7x10-10 2x10-5
Sb-125 S 5x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 3x10-8 3x10-3 9x10-10 1x10-4
Argon (18) Ar-37 Sub2/ 6x10-3 _____ 1x10-4  
Ar-41 Sub 2x10-6 _____ 4x10-8  
Arsenic (33) As-73 S 2x10-6 1x10-2 7x10-8 5x10-4
I 4x10-7 1x10-2 1x10-8 5x10-4
As-74 S 3x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-10 5x10-5
I 1x10-7 2x10-3 4x10-9 5x10-5
As-76 S 1x10-7 6x10-4 4x10-9 2x10-5
I 1x10-7 6x10-4 3x10-9 2x10-5
As-77 S 5x10-7 2x10-3 2x10-8 8x10-5
I 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 8x10-5
Astatine (85) At-211 S 7x10-9 5x10-5 2x1010 2x10-6
I 3x10-8 2x10-3 1x10-9 7x10-5
Barium (56) Ba-131 S 1x10-6 5x10-3 4x10-8 2x10-4
I 4x10-7 5x10-3 1x10-8 2x10-4
Ba-140 S 1x10-7 8x10-4 4x10-9 3x10-5
I 4x10-8 7x10-4 1x10-9 2x10-5
Berkelium (97) Bk-249 S 9x10-10 2x10-2 3x10-11 6x10-4
I 1x10-7 2x10-2 4x10-9 6x10-4
Bk-250 S 1x10-7 6x10-3 5x10-9 2x10-4
I 1x10-6 6x10-3 4x10-8 2x10-4
Beryllium (4) Be-7 S 6x10-6 5x10-2 2x10-7 2x10-3
I 1x10-6 5x10-2 4x10-8 2x10-3
Bismuth (83) Bi-206 S 2x10-7 1x10-3 6x10-9 4x10-5
I 1x10-7 1x10-3 5x10-9 4x10-5
Bi-207 S 2x10-7 2x10-3 6x10-9 6x10-5
I 1x10-8 2x10-3 5x10-10 6x10-5
Bi-210 S 6x10-9 1x10-3 2x10-10 4x10-5
I 6x10-9 1x10-3 2x10-10 4x10-5
Bi-212 S 1x10-7 1x10-2 3x10-9 4x10-4
I 2x10-7 1x10-2 7x10-9 4x104
Bromine (35) Br-82 S 1x10-6 8x10-3 4x10-8 3x10-4
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 6x10-9 4x10-5
Cadmium (48) Cd-109 S 5x10-8 5x10-3 2x10-9 2x10-4
I 7x10-8 5x10-3 3x10-9 2x10-4
Cd-115m S 4x10-8 7x10-4 1x10-9 3x10-5
I 4x10-8 7x10-4 1x10-9 3x10-5
Cd-115 S 2x10-7 1x10-3 8x10-9 3x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 6x10-9 4x10-5
Calcium (20) Ca-45 S 3x10-8 3x10-4 1x10-9 9x10-6
I 1x10-7 5x10-3 4x10-9 2x10-4
Ca-47 S 2x10-7 1x10-3 6x10-9 5x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 6x10-9 3x10-5
Californium (98) Cf-249 S 2x10-12 1x10-4 5x10-14 4x10-6
I 1x10-10 7x10-4 3x10-12 2x10-5
Cf-250 S 5x10-12 4x10-4 2x10-13 1x10-5
I 1x10-10 7x10-4 3x10-12 3x10-5
Cf-251 S 2x10-12 1x10-4 6x10-14 4x10-6
I 1x10-10 8x10-4 3x10-12 3x10-5
Cf-252 S 6x10-12 2x10-4 2x10-13 7x10-6
I 3x10-11 2x10-4 1x10-12 7x10-6
Cf-253 S 8x10-10 4x10-3 3x10-11 1x10-4
I 8x10-10 4x10-3 3x10-11 1x10-4
Cf-254 S 5x10-12 4x10-6 2x10-13 1x10-7
I 5x10-12 4x10-6 2x10-13 1x10-7
Carbon (6) C-14 S 4x10-6 2x10-2 1x10-7 8x10-4
(Co2) Sub2/ 5x10-5 _____ 1x10-6 _____
Cerium (58) Ce-141 S 4x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 9x10-5
I 2x10-7 3x10-3 5x10-9 9x10-5
Ce-143 S 3x10-7 1x10-3 9x10-9 4x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 7x10-9 4x10-5
Ce-144 S 1x10-8 3x10-4 3x10-10 1x10-5
I 6x10-9 3x10-4 2x10-10 1x10-5
Cesium (55) Cs-131 S 1x10-5 7x10-2 4x10-7 2x10-3
I 3x10-6 3x10-2 1x10-7 9x10-4
Cs-134m S 4x10-5 2x10-1 1x10-6 6x10-3
I 6x10-6 3x10-2 2x10-7 1x10-3
Cs-134 S 4x10-8 3x10-4 1x10-9 9x10-6
I 1x10-8 1x10-3 4x10-10 4x10-5
Cs-135 S 5x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 9x10-8 7x10-3 3x10-9 2x10-4
Cs-136 S 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 9x10-5
I 2x10-7 2x10-3 6x10-9 6x10-5
Cs-137 S 6x10-8 4x10-4 2x10-9 2x10-5
I 1x10-8 1x10-3 5x10-10 4x10-5
Chlorine (17) Cl-36 S 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 8x10-5
I 2x10-8 2x10-3 8x10-10 6x10-5
Cl-38 S 3x10-6 1x10-2 9x10-8 4x10-4
I 2x10-6 1x10-2 7x10-8 4x10-4
Chromium (24) Cr-51 S 1x10-5 5x10-2 4x10-7 2x10-3
I 2x10-6 5x10-2 8x10-8 2x10-3
Cobalt (27) Co-57 S 3x10-6 2x10-2 1x10- 5x10-4
I 2x10-7 1x10-2 6x10-9 4x10-4
Co-58m S 2x10-5 8x10-2 6x10-7 3x10-3
I 9x10-6 6x10-2 3x10-7 2x10-3
Co-58 S 8x10-7 4x10-3 3x10-8 1x10-4
I 5x10-8 3x10-3 2x10-9 9x10-5
Co-60 S 3x10-7 1x10-3 1x10-8 5x10-5
I 9x10-9 1x10-3 3x10-10 3x10-5
Copper (29) Cu-64 S 2x10-6 1x10-2 7x10-8 3x10-4
I 1x10-6 6x10-3 4x10-8 2x10-4
Curium (96) Cm-242 S 1x10-10 7x10-4 4x10-12 2x10-5
I 2x10-10 7x10-4 6x10-12 2x10-5
Cm-243 S 6x10-12 1x10-4 2x10-13 5x10-6
I 1x10-10 7x10-4 3x10-12 2x10-5
Cm-244 S 9x10-12 2x10-4 3x10-13 7x10-6
I 1x10-10 8x10-4 3x10-12 3x10-5
Cm-245 S 5x10-12 1x10-4 2x10-13 4x10-6
I 1x10-10 8x10-4 4x10-12 3x10-5
Cm-246 S 5x10-12 1x10-4 2x10-13 4x10-6
I 1x10-10 8x10-4 4x10-12 3x10-5
Cm-247 S 5x10-12 1x10-4 2x10-13 4x10-6
I 1x10-10 6x10-4 4x10-12 2x10-5
Cm-248 S 6x10-13 1x10-5 2x10-14 4x10-7
I 1x10-11 4x10-5 4x10-13 1x10-6
Cm-249 S 1x10-5 6x10-2 4x10-7 2x10-3
I 1x10-5 6x10-2 4x10-7 2x10-3
Dysprosium (66) Dy-165 S 3x10-6 1x10-2 9x10-8 4x10-4
I 2x10-6 1x10-2 7x10-8 4x10-4
Dy-166 S 2x10-7 1x10-3 8x10-9 4x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 7x10-9 4x10-5
Einsteinium (99) Es-253 S 8x10-10 7x10-4 3x10-11 2x10-5
I 6x10-10 7x10-4 2x10-11 2x10-5
Es-254m S 5x10-9 5x10-4 2x10-10 2x10-5
I 6x10-9 5x10-4 2x10-10 2x10-5
Es-254 S 2x10-11 4x10-4 6x10-13 1x10-5
I 1x10-10 4x10-4 4x10-12 1x10-5
Es-255 S 5x10-10 8x10-4 2x10-11 3x10-5
I 4x10-10 8x10-4 1x10-11 3x10-5
Erbium (68) Er-169 S 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 9x10-5
I 4x10-7 3x10-3 1x10-8 9x10-5
Er-171 S 7x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
Europium (63) Eu-152
(Tr=9.2 hrs)
S 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
I 3x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
Eu-152
(Tr=13 yrs)
S 1x10-8 2x10-3 4x10-10 8x10-5
I 2x10-8 2x10-3 6x10-10 8x10-5
Eu-154 S 4x10-9 6x10-4 1x10-10 2x10-5
I 7x10-9 6x10-4 2x10-10 2x10-5
Eu-155 S 9x10-8 6x10-3 3x10-9 2x10-4
I 7x10-8 6x10-3 3x10-9 2x10-4
Fermium (100) Fm-254 S 6x10-8 4x10-3 2x10-9 1x10-4
I 7x10-8 4x10-3 2x10-9 1x10-4
Fm-255 S 2x10-8 1x10-3 6x10-10 3x10-5
I 1x10-8 1x10-3 4x10-10 3x10-5
Fm-256 S 3x10-9 3x10-5 1x10-10 9x10-7
I 2x10-9 3x10-5 6x10-11 9x10-7
Fluorine (9) F-18 S 5x10-6 2x10-2 2x10-7 8x10-4
I 3x10-6 1x10-2 9x10-8 5x10-4
Gadolinium (64) Gd-153 S 2x10-7 6x10-3 8x10-9 2x10-4
I 9x10-8 6x10-3 3x10-9 2x10-4
Gd-159 S 5x10-7 2x10-3 2x10-8 8x10-5
I 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 8x10-5
Gallium (31) Ga-72 S 2x10-7 1x10-3 8x10-9 4x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 6x10-9 4x10-5
Germanium (32) Ge-68 S 7x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-7 9x10-4
I 2x10-8 3x10-3 5x10-9 9x10-4
Ge-71 S 1x10-5 5x10-2 4x10-7 2x10-3
I 6x10-6 5x10-2 2x10-7 2x10-3
Gold (79) Au-195 S 2x10-7 7x10-4 7x10-8 2x10-4
I 6x10-8 7x10-4 2x10-8 2x10-4
Au-196 S 1x10-6 5x10-3 4x10-8 2x10-4
I 6x10-7 4x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
Au-198 S 3x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 5x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 8x10-9 5x10-5
Au-199 S 1x10-6 5x10-3 4x10-8 2x10-4
I 8x10-7 4x10-3 3x10-8 2x10-4
Hafnium (72) Hf-181 S 4x10-8 2x10-3 1x10-9 7x10-5
I 7x10-8 2x10-3 3x10-9 7x10-5
Holmium (67) Ho-166 S 2x10-7 9x10-4 7x10-9 3x10-5
I 2x10-7 9x10-4 6x10-9 3x10-5
Hydrogen (1) H-3 S 5x10-6 1x10-1 2x10-7 3x10-3
I 5x10-6 1x10-1 2x10-7 3x10-3
Sub2/ 2x10-3 _____ 4x10-5 _____
Indium (49) In-113m S 8x10-6 4x10-2 3x10-7 1x10-3
I 7x10-6 4x10-2 2x10-7 1x10-3
In-114m S 1x10-7 5x10-4 4x10-9 2x10-5
I 2x10-8 5x10-4 7x10-10 2x10-5
In-115m S 2x10-6 1x10-2 8x10-8 4x10-4
I 2x10-6 1x10-2 6x10-8 4x10-4
In-115 S 2x10-7 3x10-3 9x10-9 9x10-5
I 3x10-8 3x10-3 1x10-9 9x10-5
Iodine (53) I-125 S 5x10-9 4x10-5 8x10-11 2x10-7
I 2x10-7 6x10-3 6x10-9 2x10-4
I-126 S 8x10-9 5x10-5 9x10-11 3x10-7
I 3x10-7 3x10-3 1x10-8 9x10-5
I-129 S 2x10-9 1x10-5 2x10-11 6x10-8
I 7x10-8 6x10-3 2x10-9 2x10-4
I-131 S 9x10-9 6x10-5 1x10-10 3x10-7
I 3x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
I-132 S 2x10-7 2x10-3 3x10-9 8x10-6
I 9x10-7 5x10-3 3x10-8 2x10-4
I-133 S 3x10-8 2x10-4 4x10-10 1x10-6
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 7x10-9 4x10-5
I-134 S 5x10-7 4x10-3 6x10-9 2x10-5
I 3x10-6 2x10-2 1x10-7 6x10-4
I-135 S 1x10-7 7x10-4 1x10-9 4x10-6
I 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 7x10-5
Iridium (77) Ir-190 S 1x10-6 6x10-3 4x10-8 2x10-4
I 4x10-7 5x10-3 1x10-8 2x10-4
Ir-192 S 1x10-7 1x10-3 4x10-9 4x10-5
I 3x10-8 1x10-3 9x10-10 4x10-5
Ir-194 S 2x10-7 1x10-3 8x10-9 3x10-5
I 2x10-7 9x10-4 5x10-9 3x10-5
Iron (26) Fe-55 S 9x10-7 2x10-2 3x10-8 8x10-4
I 1x10-6 7x10-2 3x10-8 2x10-3
Fe-59 S 1x10-7 2x10-3 5x10-9 6x10-5
I 5x10-8 2x10-3 2x10-9 5x10-5
Krypton (36) Kr-85m Sub2/ 6x10-6 _____ 1x10-7 _____
Kr-85 Sub 1x10-5 _____ 3x10-7 _____
Kr-87 Sub 1x10-6 _____ 2x10-8 _____
Kr-88 Sub 1x10-6 _____ 2x10-8 _____
Lanthanum (57) La-140 S 2x10-7 7x10-4 5x10-9 2x10-5
I 1x10-7 7x10-4 4x10-9 2x10-5
Lead (82) Pb-203 S 3x10-6 1x10-2 9x10-8 4x10-4
I 2x10-6 1x10-2 6x10-8 4x10-4
Pb-210 S 1x10-10 4x10-6 4x10-12 1x10-7
I 2x10-10 5x10-3 8x10-12 2x10-4
Pb-212 S 2x10-8 6x10-4 6x10-10 2x10-5
I 2x10-8 5x10-4 7x10-10 2x10-5
Lutetium (71) Lu-177 S 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 5x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
Manganese (25) Mn-52 S 2x10-7 1x10-3 7x10-9 3x10-5
I 1x10-7 9x10-4 5x10-9 3x10-5
Mn-54 S 4x10-7 4x10-3 1x10-8 1x10-4
I 4x10-8 3x10-3 1x10-9 1x10-4
Mn-56 S 8x10-7 4x10-3 3x10-8 1x10-4
I 5x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
Mercury (80) Hg-197m S 7x10-7 6x10-3 3x10-8 2x10-4
I 8x10-7 5x10-3 3x10-8 2x10-4
Hg-197 S 1x10-6 9x10-3 4x10-8 3x10-4
I 3x10-6 1x10-2 9x10-8 5x10-4
Hg-203 S 7x10-8 5x10-4 2x10-9 2x10-5
I 1x10-7 3x10-3 4x10-9 1x10-4
Molybdenum (42) Mo-99 S 7x10-7 5x10-3 3x10-8 2x10-4
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 7x10-9 4x10-5
Neodymium (60) Nd-144 S 8x10-11 2x10-3 3x10-12 7x10-5
I 3x10-10 2x10-3 1x10-11 8x10-5
Nd-147 S 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
I 2x10-7 2x10-3 8x10-9 6x10-5
Nd-149 S 2x10-6 8x10-3 6x10-8 3x10-4
I 1x10-6 8x10-3 5x10-8 3x10-4
Neptunium (93) Np-237 S 4x10-12 9x10-5 1x10-13 3x10-6
I 1x10-10 9x10-4 4x10-12 3x10-5
Np-239 S 8x10-7 4x10-3 3x10-8 1x10-4
I 7x10-7 4x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
Nickel (28) Ni-59 S 5x10-7 6x10-3 2x10-8 2x10-4
I 8x10-7 6x10-2 3x10-8 2x10-3
Ni-63 S 6x10-8 8x10-4 2x10-9 3x10-5
I 3x10-7 2x10-2 1x10-8 7x10-4
Ni-65 S 9x10-7 4x10-3 3x10-8 1x10-4
I 5x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
Niobium (41) Nb-93m S 1x10-7 1x10-2 4x10-9 4x10-4
I 2x10-7 1x10-2 5x10-9 4x10-4
Nb-95 S 5x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 1x10-7 3x10-3 3x10-9 1x10-4
Nb-97 S 6x10-6 3x10-2 2x10-7 9x10-4
I 5x10-6 3x10-2 2x10-7 9x10-4
Osmium (76) Os-185 S 5x10-7 2x10-3 2x10-8 7x10-5
I 5x10-8 2x10-3 2x10-9 7x10-5
Os-191m S 2x10-5 7x10-2 6x10-7 3x10-3
I 9x10-6 7x10-2 3x10-7 2x10-3
Os-191 S 1x10-6 5x10-3 4x10-8 2x10-4
I 4x10-7 5x10-3 1x10-8 2x10-4
Os-193 S 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
I 3x10-7 2x10-3 9x10-9 5x10-5
Palladium (46) Pd-103 S 1x10-6 1x10-2 5x10-8 3x10-4
I 7x10-7 8x10-3 3x10-8 3x10-4
Pd-109 S 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 9x10-5
I 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 7x10-5
Phosphorus (15) P-32 S 7x10-8 5x10-4 2x10-9 2x10-5
I 8x10-8 7x10-4 3x10-9 2x10-5
Platinum (78) Pt-191 S 8x10-7 4x10-3 3x10-8 1x10-4
I 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
Pt-193m S 7x10-6 3x10-2 2x10-7 1x10-3
I 5x10-6 3x10-2 2x10-7 1x10-3
Pt-193 S 1x10-6 3x10-2 4x10-8 9x10-4
I 3x10-7 5x10-2 1x10-8 2x10-3
Pt-197m S 6x10-6 3x10-2 2x10-7 1x10-3
I 5x10-6 3x10-2 2x10-7 9x10-4
Pt-197 S 8x10-7 4x10-3 3x10-8 1x10-4
I 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
Plutonium (94) Pu-238 S 2x10-12 1x10-4 7x10-14 5x10-6
I 3x10-11 8x10-4 1x10-12 3x10-5
Pu-239 S 2x10-12 1x10-4 6x10-14 5x10-6
I 4x10-11 8x10-4 1x10-12 3x10-5
Pu-240 S 2x10-12 1x10-4 6x10-14 5x10-6
I 4x10-11 8x10-4 1x10-12 3x10-5
Pu-241 S 9x10-11 7x10-3 3x10-12 2x10-4
I 4x10-8 4x10-2 1x10-9 1x10-3
Pu-242 S 2x10-12 1x10-4 6x10-14 5x10-6
I 4x10-11 9x10-4 1x10-12 3x10-5
Pu-243 S 2x10-6 1x10-2 6x10-8 3x10-4
I 2x10-6 1x10-2 8x10-8 3x10-4
Pu-244 S 2x10-12 1x10-4 6x10-14 4x10-6
I 3x10-11 3x10-4 1x10-12 1x10-5
Polonium (84) Po-210 S 5x10-10 2x10-5 2x10-11 7x10-7
I 2x10-10 8x10-4 7x10-12 3x10-5
Potassium (19) K-42 S 2x10-6 9x10-3 7x10-8 3x10-4
I 1x10-7 6x10-4 4x10-9 2x10-5
Praseodymium (59) Pr-142 S 2x10-7 9x10-4 7x10-9 3x10-5
I 2x10-7 9x10-4 5x10-9 3x10-5
Pr-143 S 3x10-7 1x10-3 1x10-8 5x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 6x10-9 5x10-5
Promethium (61) Pm-147 S 6x10-8 6x10-3 2x10-9 2x10-4
I 1x10-7 6x10-3 3x10-9 2x10-4
Pm-149 S 3x10-7 1x10-3 1x10-8 4x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 8x10-9 4x10-5
Protactinium (91) Pa-230 S 2x10-9 7x10-3 6x10-11 2x10-4
I 8x10-10 7x10-3 3x10-11 2x10-4
Pa-231 S 1x10-12 3x10-5 4x10-14 9x10-7
I 1x10-10 8x10-4 4x10-12 2x10-5
Pa-233 S 6x10-7 4x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 2x10-7 3x10-3 6x10-9 1x10-4
Radium (88) Ra-223 S 2x10-9 2x10-5 6x10-11 7x10-7
I 2x10-10 1x10-4 8x10-12 4x10-6
Ra-224 S 5x10-9 7x10-5 2x10-10 2x10-6
I 7x10-10 2x10-4 2x10-11 5x10-6
Ra-226 S 3x10-11 4x10-7 3x10-12 3x10-8
I 5x10-11 9x10-4 2x10-12 3x10-5
Ra-228 S 7x10-11 8x10-7 2x10-12 3x10-8
I 4x10-11 7x10-4 1x10-12 3x10-5
Radon (86) Rn-220 S 3x10-7 _____ 1x10-8 _____
I _____ _____ _____ _____
Rn-2223/ S 3x10-8 _____ 3x10-9 _____
Rhenium (75) Re-183 S 3x10-6 2x10-2 9x10-8 6x10-4
I 2x10-7 8x10-3 5x10-9 3x10-4
Re-186 S 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 9x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 8x10-9 5x10-5
Re-187 S 9x10-6 7x10-2 3x10-7 3x10-3
I 5x10-7 4x10-2 2x10-8 2x10-3
Re-188 S 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
I 2x10-7 9x10-4 6x10-9 3x10-5
Rhodium (45) Rh-103m S 8x10-5 4x10-1 3x10-6 1x10-2
I 6x10-5 3x10-1 2x10-6 1x10-2
Rh-105 S 8x10-7 4x10-3 3x10-8 1x10-4
I 5x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
Rubidium (37) Rb-86 S 3x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 7x10-5
I 7x10-8 7x10-4 2x10-9 2x10-5
Rb-87 S 5x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 7x10-8 5x10-3 2x10-9 2x10-4
Ruthenium (44) Ru-97 S 2x10-6 1x10-2 8x10-8 4x10-4
I 2x10-6 1x10-2 6x10-8 3x10-4
Ru-103 S 5x10-7 2x10-3 2x10-8 8x10-5
I 8x10-8 2x10-3 3x10-9 8x10-5
Ru-105 S 7x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 5x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
Ru-106 S 8x10-8 4x10-4 3x10-9 1x10-5
I 6x10-9 3x10-4 2x10-10 1x10-5
Samarium (62) Sm-147 S 7x10-11 2x10-3 2x10-12 6x10-5
I 3x10-10 2x10-3 9x10-12 7x10-5
Sm-151 S 6x10-8 1x10-2 2x10-9 4x10-4
I 1x10-7 1x10-2 5x10-9 4x10-4
Sm-153 S 5x10-7 2x10-3 2x10-8 8x10-5
I 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 8x10-5
Scandium (21) Sc-46 S 2x10-7 1x10-3 8x10-9 4x10-5
I 2x10-8 1x10-3 8x10-10 4x10-5
Sc-57 S 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 9x10-5
I 5x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 9x10-5
Sc-48 S 2x10-7 8x10-4 6x10-9 3x10-5
I 1x10-7 8x10-4 5x10-9 3x10-5
Selenium (34) Se-75 S 1x10-6 9x10-3 4x10-8 3x10-4
I 1x10-7 3x10-3 4x10-9 3x10-4
Silicon (14) Si-31 S 6x10-6 3x10-2 2x10-7 9x10-4
I 1x10-6 6x10-3 3x10-8 2x10-4
Silver (47) Ag-105 S 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 8x10-8 3x10-3 3x10-9 1x10-4
Ag-110m S 2x10-7 9x10-4 7x10-9 3x10-5
I 1x10-8 9x10-4 3x10-10 3x10-5
Ag-111 S 3x10-7 1x10-3 1x10-8 4x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 8x10-9 4x10-5
Sodium (11) Na-22 S 2x10-7 1x10-3 6x10-9 4x10-5
I 9x10-9 9x10-4 3x10-10 3x10-5
Na-24 S 1x10-6 6x10-3 4x10-8 2x10-4
I 1x10-7 8x10-4 5x10-9 3x10-5
Strontium (38) Sr-85m S 4x10-5 2x10-1 1x10-6 7x10-3
I 3x10-5 2x10-1 1x10-6 7x10-3
Sr-85 S 2x10-7 3x10-3 8x10-9 1x10-4
I 1x10-7 5x10-3 4x10-9 2x10-4
Sr-89 S 3x10-8 3x10-4 3x10-10 3x10-6
I 4x10-8 8x10-4 1x10-9 3x10-5
Sr-90 S 1x10-9 1x10-5 3x10-11 3x10-7
I 5x10-9 1x10-3 2x10-10 4x10-5
Sr-91 S 4x10-7 2x10-3 2x10-8 7x10-5
I 3x10-7 1x10-3 9x10-9 5x10-5
Sr-92 S 4x10-7 2x10-3 2x10-8 7x10-5
I 3x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
Sulfur (16) S-35 S 3x10-7 2x10-3 9x10-9 6x10-5
I 3x10-7 8x10-3 9x10-9 3x10-4
Tantalum (73) Ta-182 S 4x10-8 1x10-3 1x10-9 4x10-5
I 2x10-8 1x10-3 7x10-10 4x10-5
Technetium (43) Tc-96m S 8x10-5 4x10-1 3x10-6 1x10-2
I 3x10-5 3x10-1 1x10-6 1x10-2
Tc-96 S 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 8x10-9 5x10-5
Tc-97m S 2x10-6 1x10-2 8x10-8 4x10-4
I 2x10-7 5x10-3 5x10-9 2x10-4
Tc-97 S 1x10-5 5x10-2 4x10-7 2x10-3
I 3x10-7 2x10-2 1x10-8 8x10-4
Tc-99m S 4x10-5 2x10-1 1x10-6 6x10-3
I 1x10-5 8x10-2 5x10-7 3x10-3
Tc-00 S 2x10-6 1x10-2 7x10-8 3x10-4
I 6x10-8 5x10-3 2x10-9 2x10-4
Tellurium (52) Te-125m S 4x10-7 5x10-3 1x10-8 2x10-4
I 1x10-7 3x10-3 4x10-9 1x10-4
Te-127m S 1x10-7 2x10-3 5x10-9 6x10-5
I 4x10-8 2x10-3 1x10-9 5x10-5
Te-127 S 2x10-6 8x10-3 6x10-8 3x10-4
I 9x10-7 5x10-3 3x10-8 2x10-4
Te-129m S 8x10-8 1x10-3 3x10-9 3x10-5
I 3x10-8 6x10-4 1x10-9 2x10-5
Te-129 S 5x10-6 2x10-2 2x10-7 8x10-4
I 4x10-6 2x10-2 1x10-7 8x10-4
Te-131m S 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 6x10-9 4x10-5
Te-132 S 2x10-7 9x10-4 7x10-9 3x10-5
I 1x10-7 6x10-4 4x10-9 2x10-5
Terbium (65) Tb-165 S 1x10-7 1x10-3 3x10-9 4x10-5
I 3x10-8 1x10-3 1x10-9 4x10-5
Thallium (81) Tl-200 S 3x10-6 1x10-2 9x10-8 4x10-4
I 1x10-6 7x10-3 4x10-8 2x10-4
Tl-201 S 2x10-6 9x10-3 7x10-8 3x10-4
I 9x10-7 5x10-3 3x10-8 2x10-4
Tl-202 S 8x10-7 4x10-3 3x10-8 1x10-4
I 2x10-7 2x10-3 8x10-9 7x10-5
Tl-204 S 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 3x10-8 2x10-3 9x10-10 6x10-5
Thorium (90) Th-227 S 3x10-10 5x10-4 1x10-11 2x10-5
I 2x10-10 5x10-4 6x10-12 2x10-5
Th-228 S 9x10-12 2x10-4 3x10-13 7x10-6
I 6x10-12 4x10-4 2x10-13 1x10-5
Th-230 S 2x10-12 5x10-5 8x10-14 2x10-6
I 1x10-11 9x10-4 3x10-13 3x10-5
Th-231 S 1x10-6 7x10-3 5x10-8 2x10-4
I 1x10-6 7x10-3 7x10-8 2x10-4
Th-232 S 3x10-11 5x10-5 1x10-12 2x10-6
I 3x10-11 1x10-3 1x10-12 4x10-5
Th-natural S 6x10-11 6x10-5 2x10-12 2x10-6
I 6x10-11 6x10-4 2x10-12 2x10-5
Th-234 S 6x10-8 5x10-4 2x10-9 2x10-5
I 3x10-8 5x10-4 1x10-9 2x10-5
Thulium (69) Tm-170 S 4x10-8 1x10-3 1x10-9 5x10-5
I 3x10-8 1x10-3 1x10-9 5x10-5
Tm-171 S 1x10-7 1x10-2 4x10-9 5x10-4
I 2x10-7 1x10-2 8x10-9 5x10-4
Tin (50) Sn-113 S 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 9x10-5
I 5x10-8 2x10-3 2x10-9 8x10-5
Sn-125 S 1x10-7 5x10-4 4x10-9 2x10-5
I 8x10-8 5x10-4 3x10-9 2x10-5
Tungsten (74) W-181 S 2x10-6 1x10-2 8x10-8 4x10-4
I 1x10-7 1x10-2 4x10-9 3x10-4
W-185 S 8x10-7 4x10-3 3x10-8 1x10-4
I 1x10-7 3x10-3 4x10-9 1x10-4
W-187 S 4x10-7 2x10-3 2x10-8 7x10-5
I 3x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
Uranium (92) U-230 S 3x10-10 1x10-4 1x10-11 5x10-6
I 1x10-10 1x10-4 4x10-12 5x10-6
U-232 S 1x10-10 8x10-4 3x10-12 3x10-5
I 3x10-11 8x10-4 9x10-13 3x10-5
U-233 S 5x10-10 9x10-4 2x10-11 3x10-5
I 1x10-10 9x10-4 4x10-12 3x10-5
U-234 S4/ 6x10-10 9x10-4 2x10-11 3x10-5
I 1x10-10 9x10-4 4x10-12 3x10-5
U-235 S4/ 5x10-10 8x10-4 2x10-11 3x10-5
I 1x10-10 8x10-4 4x10-12 3x10-5
U-236 S 6x10-10 1x10-3 2x10-11 3x10-5
I 1x10-10 1x10-3 4x10-12 3x10-5
U-238 S4/ 7x10-11 1x10-3 3x10-12 4x10-5
I 1x10-10 1x10-3 5x10-12 4x10-5
U-240 S 2x10-7 1x10-3 8x10-9 3x10-5
I 2x10-7 1x10-3 6x10-9 3x10-5
U-natural S4/ 1x10-10 1x10-3 5x10-12 3x10-5
I 1x10-10 1x10-3 5x10-12 3x10-5
Vanadium (23) V-48 S 2x10-7 9x10-4 6x10-9 3x10-5
I 6x10-8 8x10-4 2x10-9 3x10-5
Xenon (54) Xe-131m Sub2/ 2x10-5 _____ 4x10-7 _____
Xe-133m Sub 1x10-5 _____ 3x10-7 _____
Xe-133 Sub 1x10-5 _____ 3x10-7 _____
Xe-135 Sub 4x10-6 _____ 1x10-7 _____
Ytterbium (70) Yb-175 S 7x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
I 6x10-7 3x10-3 2x10-8 1x10-4
Yttrium (39) Y-88 S 1x10-7 2x10-4 4x10-8 8x10-5
I 5x10-8 2x10-4 2x10-8 8x10-5
Y-90 S 1x10-7 6x10-4 4x10-9 2x10-5
I 1x10-7 6x10-4 3x10-9 2x10-5
Y-91m S 2x10-5 1x10-1 8x10-7 3x10-3
I 2x10-5 1x10-1 6x10-7 3x10-3
Y-91 S 4x10-8 8x10-4 1x10-9 3x10-5
I 3x10-8 8x10-4 1x10-9 3x10-5
Y-92 S 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
I 3x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
Y-93 S 2x10-7 8x10-4 6x10-9 3x10-5
I 1x10-7 8x10-4 5x10-9 3x10-5
Zinc (30) Zn-65 S 1x10-7 3x10-3 4x10-9 1x10-4
I 6x10-8 5x10-3 2x10-9 2x10-4
Zn-69m S 4x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 7x10-5
I 3x10-7 2x10-3 1x10-8 6x10-5
Zn-69 S 7x10-6 5x10-2 2x10-7 2x10-3
I 9x10-6 5x10-2 3x10-7 2x10-3
Zirconium (40) Zr-93 S 1x10-7 2x10-2 4x10-9 8x10-4
I 3x10-7 2x10-2 1x10-8 8x10-4
Zr-95 S 1x10-7 2x10-3 4x10-9 6x10-5
I 3x10-8 2x10-3 1x10-9 6x10-5
Zr-97 S 1x10-7 5x10-4 4x10-9 2x10-5
I 9x10-8 5x10-4 3x10-9 2x10-5
Any single radio-nuclide not listed above with decay mode other than alpha emission or spontaneous fission and with radioactive half-life less than 2 hours. *** Sub2/   1x10-6 _____ 3x10-8 _____
Any single radio-nuclide not listed above with decay mode other than alpha emission or spontaneous fission and with radioactive half-life greater than 2 hours.     3x10-9 9x10-5 1x10-10 3x10-6
Any single radio-nuclide not listed above, which decays by alpha emission or spontaneous fission.     6x10-13 4x10-7 2x-14 3x10-8
1/Soluble (S); Insoluble (I).
2/"Sub" means that values given are for submersion in a semispherical infinite cloud of airborne material.
3/These radon concentrations are appropriate for protection from radon-222 combined with its short-lived daughters. Alternatively, the value in Table I may be replaced by 1/3 "working level." (A "working level" is defined as any combinations of short-lived radon-222 daughters, polonium-218, lead-214, bismuth-214, and polonium-214 in 1 liter of air, without regard to the degree of equilibrium, that will result in the ultimate emission of 1.3x105 MeV of alpha particle energy.) The Table II value may be replaced by 1/30th of a "working level." The limit on radon-222 concentrations in restricted areas may be based on an annual average.
4/For soluble mixtures of U-238, U-234 and U-235 in air, chemical toxicity may be the limiting factor. If the percent by weight (enrichment) of U-235 is less than 5, the concentration value for a 40-hour workweek, Table I, is 0.2 milligrams uranium per cubic meter of air average. For any enrichment, the product of the average concentration and time of exposure during a 40-hour workweek shall not exceed 8x10-3 SA µCi-hr/ml, where SA is the specific activity of the uranium inhaled. The concentration value for Table II is 0.007 milligrams uranium per cubic meter of air. The specific activity for natural uranium is 6.77x10-7 curies per gram uranium. The specific activity for other mixtures of U-238, U-235 and U-234, if not known, shall be:
SA = 3.6 x 10-7 curies/gram U U-depeleted
SA = (0.4 + 0.38 E + 0.0034 E2) 10-6 E ³ 0.72
where E is the percentage by weight of U-235, expressed as percent.

Note: In any case where there is a mixture in air or water of more than one radionuclide, the limiting values for purposes of this appendix should be determined as follows:

1. If the identity and concentration of each radionuclide in the mixture are known, the limiting values should be derived as follows: Determine, for each radionuclide in the mixture, the ratio between the quantity present in the mixture and the limit otherwise established in Appendix "A" for the specific radionuclide when not in a mixture. The sum of such ratios for all the radionuclides in the mixture may not exceed "1" (i.e., "unity").

Example: If radionuclides a, b, and c are present in concentrations Ca, Cb, and Cc, and if the applicable maximum permissible concentrations (MPC's) are MPCa, MPCb, and MPCc respectively, then the concentrations shall be limited so that the following relationship exists:

1

2. If either the identity or the concentration of any radionuclide in the mixture is not known, the limiting values for purposes of Appendix "A" shall be:

a. For purposes of Table I, Col. 1 6x10-13

b. For purposes of Table I, Col. 2 4x10-7

c. For purposes of Table II, Col. 1 2x10-14

d. For purposes of Table II, Col. 2 3x10-8

3. If any of the conditions specified below are met, the corresponding values specified below may be used in lieu of those specified in paragraph 2 above.

a. If the identity of each radionuclide in the mixture is known but the concentration of one or more of the radionuclides in the mixture is not known, the concentration limit for the mixture is the limit specified in Appendix "A" for the radionuclide in the mixture having the lowest concentration limit: or

b. If the identity of each radionuclide in the mixture is not known, but it is known that certain radionuclides specified in Appendix "A" are not present in the mixture, the concentration limit for the mixture is the lowest concentration limit specified in Appendix "A" for any radionuclide which is not known to be absent from the mixture; or

c. Radionuclide

Table I

Table II

 

Column 1 Air (µCi/ml)

Column 2 Water (µCi/ml)

Column 1 Air (µCi/ml)

Column 2 Water (µCi/ml)

If it is known that Sr-90, I-125, I-126, I-129, I-131, (I-133 Table II only), Pb-210, Po-210, At-211, Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-226, AC-227, Ra-228, Th-230, Pa-231, Th-232, Th-nat, Cm-248, Cf-254, and Fm-256 are not present _____ 9x10-5 _____ 3x 10-6
If it is known that Sr-90, I-125, I-126, I-129, (I-131, I-133, Table II only), Pb-210, Po-210, Ra-223, Ra-226, Ra-228, Pa-231, Th-nat, Cm-248, Cf-254, and Fm-256 are not present _____ 6x10-5 _____ 2x10 -6
If it is known that Sr-90, I-129, (I-125, I-126, I-131, Table II only), Pb-210, Ra-226, Ra-228, Cm-248, and Cf-254 are not present _____ 2x10-5 _____ 6x10-7
If it is known that (I-129, Table II only), Ra-226, and Ra-228 are not present _____ 3x10-6 _____ 1x 10-7
If it is known that alpha-emitters and Sr-90, I-129, Pb-210, Ac-227, Ra-228, Pa-230, Pu-241, and Bk-249 are not present 3x10-9 _____ 1x 10-10 _____
If it is known that alpha-emitters and Pb-210, Ac-227, Ra-228, and Pu-241 are not present 3x10-10 _____ 1x10-11 _____
If it is known that alpha-emitters and Ac-227 are not present 3x10-11 _____ 1x10-12 _____
If it is known that Ac-227, Th-230, Pa-231, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, Pu-244, Cm-248, Cf-249 and Cf-251 are not present 3x10-12 _____ 1x10-13 _____

4. If a mixture of radionuclides consists of uranium and its daughter products in ore dust prior to chemical separation of the uranium from the ore, the values specified below may be used for uranium and its daughters through radium-226, instead of those from paragraphs 1, 2, or 3 above.

a. For purposes of Table I, Column 1, 1x10-10 µCi/ml gross alpha activity; or 5x10-11 µCi/ml natural uranium; or 75 micrograms per cubic meter of air natural uranium.

b. For purposes of Table II, Column 1, 3x10-12 µCi/ml gross alpha activity; 2x10-12 µCi/ml natural uranium; or 3 micrograms per cubic meter of air natural uranium.

5. For purposes of this note, a radionuclide may be considered as not present in a mixture if (a) the ratio of the concentration of that radionuclide in the mixture (Ca) to the concentration limit for that radionuclide specified in Table II of Appendix "A" (MPCa) does not exceed 1/10, (i.e., Ca/MPCa £ 1/10) and (b) the sum of such ratios for all radionuclides considered as not present in the mixture does not exceed 1/4, (i.e., Ca/MPCa + Cb/MPCb + £ 1/4).

Note: To convert µCi/ml to SI unnts of megabecquerels per liter, multiply the above values by 37.

Example: Zirconium (40) Zr-97 S (Table I, Column 1-Air) (1x10-7 µCi/ml multiplied by 37 is equivalent to 37x10-7 MBq/1.).

410 IAC 5-4-28 Appendix B; table for use with 410 IAC 5-4-11, 410 IAC 5-4-18, 410 IAC 5-4-19

Sec. 28.

Part D

APPENDIX B

Material Microcuries
Americium-241 0.01
Antinomy-122 100
Antinomy-124 10
Antinomy-125 10
Arsenic-73 100
Arsenic-74 10
Arsenic-76 10
Arsenic-77 100
Barium-131 10
Barium-133 10
Barium-140 10
Bismuth-210 1
Bromine-82 10
Cadmium-109 10
Cadmium-115m 10
Cadmium-115 100
Calcium-45 10
Calcium-47 10
Carbon-14 100
Cerium-141 100
Cerium-143 100
Cerium-144 1
Cesium-131 1,000
Cesium-134m 100
Cesium-134 1
Cesium-135 10
Cesium-136 10
Cesium-137 10
Chlorine-36 10
Chlorine-38 10
Chromium-51 1,000
Cobalt-58m 10
Cobalt-58 10
Cobalt-60 1
Copper-64 100
Dysprosium-165 10
Dysprosium-166 100
Erbium-169 100
Erbium-171 100
Europium-152 (9.2 h) 100
Europium-152 (13 yr) 1
Europium-154 1
Europium-155 10
Fluorine-18 1,000
Gadolinium-153 10
Gadolinium-159 100
Gallium-72 10
Germanium-71 100
Gold-198 100
Gold-199 100
Hafnium-181 10
Holmium-166 100
Hydrogen-3 1,000
Indium-113m 100
Indium-114m 10
Indium-115m 100
Indium-115 10
Iodine-125 1
Iodine-126 1
Iodine-129 0.1
Iodine-131 1
Iodine-132 10
Iodine-133 1
Iodine-134 10
Iodine-135 10
Iridium-192 10
Iridium-194 100
Iron-55 100
Iron-59 10
Krypton-85 100
Krypton-87 10
Lanthanum-140 10
Lutetium-177 100
Manganese-52 10
Manganese-54 10
Manganese-56 10
Mercury-197m 100
Mercury-197 100
Mercury-203 10
Molybdenum-99 100
Neodymium-147 100
Neodymium-149 100
Nickel-59 100
Nickel-63 10
Nickel-65 100
Niobium-93m 10
Niobium-95 10
Niobium-97 10
Osmium-185 10
Osmium-191m 100
Osmium-191 100
Osmium-193 100
Palladium-103 100
Palladium-109 100
Phosphorus-32 10
Platinum-191 100
Platinum-193m 100
Platinum-193 100
Platinum-197m 100
Platinum-197 100
Plutonium-239 0.01
Polonium-210 0.1
Potassium-42 10
Praseodymium-142 100
Praseodymium-143 100
Promethium-147 10
Promethium-149 10
Radium-226 0.01
Rhenium-186 100
Rhenium-188 100
Rhodium-103m 100
Rhodium-105 100
Rubidium-86 10
Rubidium-87 10
Ruthenium-97 100
Ruthenium-103 10
Ruthenium-105 10
Ruthenium-106 1
Samarium-151 10
Samarium-153 100
Scandium-46 10
Scandium-47 100
Scandium-48 10
Selenium-75 10
Silicon-31 100
Silver-105 10
Silver-110m 1
Silver-111 100
Sodium-22 10
Sodium-24 10
Strontium-85 10
Strontium-89 1
Strontium-90 0.1
Strontium-91 10
Strontium-92 10
Sulphur-35 100
Tantalum-182 10
Technetium-96 10
Technetium-97m 100
Technetium-97 100
Technetium-99m 100
Technetium-99 10
Tellurium-125m 10
Tellurium-127m 10
Tellurium-127 100
Tellurium-129m 10
Tellurium-129 100
Tellurium-131m 10
Tellurium-132 10
Terbium-160 10
Thallium-200 100
Thallium-201 100
Thallium-202 100
Thallium-204 10
Thorium (natural)1/ 100
Thulium-170 10
Thulium-171 10
Tin-113 10
Tin-125 10
Tungsten-181 10
Tungsten-185 10
Tungsten-187 100
Uranium (natural)2/ 100
Uranium-233 0.01
Uranium-234/235 0.01
Vanadium-48 10
Xenon-131m 1,000
Xenon-133 100
Xenon-135 100
Ytterbium-175 100
Yttrium-90 10
Yttrium-91 10
Yttrium-92 100
Yttrium-93 100
Zinc-65 10
Zinc-69m 100
Zinc-69 1,000
Zirconium-93 10
Zirconium-95 10
Zirconium-97 10
Any alpha emitting radionuclide not listed above
or mixtures of alpha emitters of unknown composition
0.01
Any radionuclide other than alpha emitting
radionuclides, not listed above or mixtures of beta
emitters of unknown composition
0.1

1/Based on alpha disintegration rate of Th-232, Th-230 and their daughter products.

2/Based on alpha disintegration rate of U-238, U-234, and U-235.

NOTE: For purposes of 410 IAC 5-4-11, 410 IAC 5-4-18, and 410 IAC 5-4-19, where there is involved a combination of isotopes in known amounts, the limit for the combination should be derived as follows: Determine, for each isotope in the combination, the ratio between the quantity present in the combination and the limit otherwise established for the specific isotope when not in combination. The sum of such ratios for all the isotopes in the combination may exceed "1" (i.e., "unity").

Example: For purposes of 410 IAC 5-4-19, if a particular batch contains 20,000 µCi of Au-198 and 50,000 µCi of C-14, it may also include not more than 300 µCi of I-131. This limit was determined as follows:

20,000 µCi Au-198/100,000 µCi + 50,000 µCi C-14/100,00[sic.] µCi + 300 µCi I-131/1,000 µCi = 1

The denominator in each of the above ratios was obtained by multiplying the figure in the table by 1,000 as provided in 410 IAC 5-4-19.

Note: To convert microcuries (µCi) to SI units of kilobecquerels (kBq), multiply the above values by 37.

Example: Zirconium-97 (10 µCi)(37) = 370 kBq. (10 µCi multiplied by 37 is equivalent to 370 kBq)