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Indiana Historical Bureau

George Rogers Clark > Henry Hamilton's Journal > Clark Recaptures Vincennes, February 22 to March 5, 1779 Clark Recaptures Vincennes, February 22 to March 5, 1779

At 3 o'Clock p.m. Mr: François Maisonville returned from the pursuit of the deserters, but could not overtake them or discover what route they had taken--

He reported that of 4 Virginians who were going down the Ohio, two had escaped, the other two he had brought with their papers, which not containing any thing essential were returned with some paper money The Names of these two persons were Lapsley and Shannon, the latter a provincial Captain-- Mr: Maisonville then took me aside and told me he had on his return discoverd 14 fires on the East side of the Ouabache, about four leagues below the fort, that he concluded they must be Virginians, but durst not expose himself to being taken by going near enough to count them--

I immediately orderd out Captain La Mothe with his Lieutt. Schiefflin Serjeant Baron with 14 Men of the Volunteers and six men of the King's Regiment who turnd out volunteers to go and reconnoitre where and who these people might be--Mr. Maisonville offered himself as a guide. [This last sentence is in the margin.]

I made no doubt of their being enemies, so immediately orderd ammunition to be deliverd for the blockhouses, set up scaffolding for small arms in the N. and South angles of the fort, orderd the Militia under arms, the absentees to be directly reported-- Captain Helm and the prisoners on parole into the fort-- Some Indian corn and Rum lately purchased were also brought in--

Bosseron one of the Captains of Militia did not make his appearance 'till 1/4 before Sunset when the Fort gate was shut-- He made many professions of Loyalty and sincerity--how much to be depended on will appear shortly--

Roll calling was just over, when we were surprized by the firing of small arms, this I attributed to some drunken frolic of the inhabitants, but going upon the parade heard the balls sing, still I could not conceive otherways than that some drunken people were amusing themselve--

Shortly after Serjeant Chapman of the King's regiment was reported to be mortally wounded, but it proved only a contusion, a metal button having saved his life, a shot from a rifled piece having struck him opposite the pit of the Stomach-- The men had been orderd before this to stand to their arms, they were now sent to occupy the Blockhouses and platforms, with orders not to fire till they could be at a certainy of doing it to purpose, and to be very managing of their ammunition--

It was now near dark and the fire increasing we were not at a loss to conclude our opponents were those whose fires had been discovrd, in course as three sides of thc fort were fired upon, we despaired of our reconnoirting party being able to return to us-- The firing continued all night on both sides, but without any effect from us the Enemy having the cover of the Church, the Churchyard fence, Houses, Barns, all within muskett shot. we dislodged those at the Church by a few discharges of a 3 Ibr from the Blockhouse, but had little chance of doing any execution against riflemen under cover-- It was very practicable to have burned the Village but there were too many reasons against it which I shall take occasion to mention--

The situation of the fort had no one advantage but its neighbourhood to the river--

Our Surgeon who had been in the Village when the firing began finding the fort invested made a push for the gate & narrowly escaped having several shot fired at him one of Which went thro' his legging-- He told us that when the first shots were fired the Woman at whose house he was cried out, there is Colonel Clarke is arrived from the Ilinois with 500 men--

We had 1 Serjt. one Matross & 2 men wounded which were brought into the officers quarters, not being able to bear the cold of the night for we were obliged to put out the fires in the huts, as the light gave advantage to the riflemen who could see men pass in the fort, & the picketting not being all lined we were much exposed-- We worked hard to remedy this defect with what spare picketts and plank we had--

About 4 o'Clock in the morning the fire slackend, and a little before Sunrise I lay down when some one came in and told me they were scaling the Stockades, running out hastily and expecting to find the Enemy attempting to get over the stockades was agreeably surprized to find Captain La Mothe's party had made a fortunate push, and did actually get over with their arms in their hands, tho the picketts were perpendicular and eleven feet high--

The account given by them of what passed the preceding night was, that the waters being out they were obliged to take a circuit by the heights, lost their way and hearing Guns fired at the fort returned and found it invested, that they concealed themselves in a large barn, where they could see the rebel patroles pass within 20 yards of them, that one of La Mothe's men (jervais) deserted them before they got to the barn, another (Roy) in the night, that on perceiving the fire slacken towards day they had waited till the coast was clear and then succeeded undiscoverd in getting to the fort--

Mr: Maisonville who had gone to Montbrun's house (his own Cousin's) to get intelligence, was betrayed by him and deliverd up to Colonel Clarke, who the next morning treated him as shall be mentioned in its place--

23d. The firing recommenced on both sides after sunrise, we cleared the houses next the fort by a few cannon shot from the Blockhouses, but this did not prevent our having two men Wounded thro the loopholes, and one walking across the parade--

This last was one of La Mothe's, and I could not find that those of his company had acted with spirit from the first. on the contrary the men of the Kings regiment behaved with the greatest alacrity, and even exposed themselves more than I wished--

At Eleven this morning one of the Captains of Militia of St. Vincennes advanced towards the fort gate, with a fllag of truce and being admitted deliverd me a letter from Colonel Clarke which was expressed in the following terms--

St. Vincennes Feby.23d.

Sir

I expect you shall immediately surrender yourself with your Garrison prisoners at discretion--If any of the stores be destroyed or any letters or papers burned, you may expect no mercy, for by Heavens you shall be treated as a murtherer--

I am Sir your humble servant

Lt. Govr. Hamilton George Rogers Clarke

The following answer was returnd--

Lieutenant Governor Hamilton acquaints Colonel Clarke, that neither he or his garrison are to be prevailed on by threats to act in a manner unbecoming the character of British Subjects.

Fort Sackville 23d. Feby. 1779 (247)

Having called the Officers together I read them Colol Clarke's letter, with the answer, and told them I was determined if they and the Men were of my mind to hold out to the last, ratha than to trust to, or accept Colonel Clarkes proposition--

They all declared themselves willing to second me--

The men were then assembled on the Parade, when I read the letter and answer in English and french, tdling them it was the determination of the Officers, as well as my own to defend the Kings colours to the last extremity rather than yield to such ignominious terms--

The English to a man declared they would stand to the last for the honor of their Country, and as they expressd it, would stick to me as the shirt to my back--

Then they cried God Save King George, and gave three Huzzas--

The French hung their heads, and their Serjeants first turned round and mutterd with their men, some said it was hard they should fight against their own Friends and relations who they could see had joined the Americans and fired against the Fort--

This was indeed fact, for as I found afterwards Bosseron had secreted powder with which he had supplyed Colonel Clarke on his arrival, and made an offer of his services with 75 men of the Militia of St. Vincennes--(248)

Finding one half of my little Garrison thus indisposed, and that with so small a number as were well affected it would be absurd to think of holding out, that to retain the French was to depend on traitors, and to turn them out must give additional confidence to our Enemies. I determined from that moment to accept honorable terms if I could procure them, I first consulted with the Officers and then communicated to the English the necessity of a surrender, assuring them at the same time that no consideration whatever should induce me to accept any but honorable terms--

They seemed very unwilling to listen to anything of the Kind, but as it was obvious we were not in a condition to make any essential resistance, that we were 600 miles distant from any relief, that duty must fall too heavy on our small numbers now reduced one half by the treachery or cowardice or both of our canadian volunteers, that we had already a fifth of our trusty Englishmen wounded, and wretched accommodations for them, they agreed to act as I judged best--

The men having had no rest the preceding night I divided the Garrison into two watches, & sent one watch to rest--

In the meantime the following transactions passed in the Village--

Mr Francis Maisonville who I had mentioned was betrayed to Colol. Clarke, being questioned by him if he had been out with the Indians, answerd in the affirmative, upon which the Colonel orderd him to be placed in a chair, and one of Clarkes men was told to take off his scalp, which probably was meant only in terrorism, however this poor man who had a great deal of firmness told the Colol. he was at his mercy and he might do his pleasure.

The executor of the Colonel's pleasure hesitating to act as he was desired, was called to with an imprecation to do as he was orderd, on which he raised two pieces of the Skin of the size of a sixpence, just then one of his brothers who had come from the Ilinois with Colol. Clarke steppd up and interceded for him on which he was set at liberty--

About two in the afternoon the party of Indians which had gone towards the falls of Ohio returnd, and advancing over the common to the fort, seeing the English flag flying and not knowing that we were attacked, discharged their pieces-- tis usual with them to fire three vollies on their approach to a fort or a town, as a salute, this is practiced also among themselves--

This party was in all but 15 or 16 men, of whom were the two serjeants of Volunteers--

Colol. Clarke being informed of their arrival, sent off 70 men to attack them, who fired on these people unprepared for such a salute, killed one wounded two and made 5 of the rest prisoners taking them to the Village--

On their arrival, they were placed in the street opposite the Fort Gate, where these poor wreches were to be sacrificed--one of them a young Indian about 18 Years of age the son of Pontiach, was saved at the intercession of one Macarty a Captain of Colol. Clarkes Banditti, who said he was formerly owed his life to the Indian's father--

One of the others was tomahawked either by Clarke or one of his Officers, the other three foreseeing their fate, began to sing their Death song, and were butcherd in succession, tho at the very time a flag of Truce was hanging out at the fort and the firing had ceased on both sides-- A young chief of the Ottawa nation called Macutté Mong one of these last, having received the fatal stroke of a Tomahawk in the head, took it out and gave it again into the hands of his executioner who repeated the Stroke a second and third time, after which the miserable being, not entirely deprived of life was dragged to the river, and thrown in with the rope about his neck where he ended his life and tortures--This horrid scene was transacted in the open Street, and before the door of a house where I afterward was quarterd, the master of which related to me the above particulars-- The Blood of the victims was still visible for days afterwards, a testimony of the courage and Humanity of Colonel Clarke--

When the prisoners were brought in, Bosseron the Villain already mentioned, levelld his piece at Serjeant Sanscrainte, whose father (who had come with Clarke from the Ilinois) at that instant stepping up raised the muzzle and obtained his son's life by applying to Colol. Clarke--

Serjeant Robert was saved by his sister's interceding-- The flag of truce had been hung out on the occasion of my sending a messenger to Colol. Clarke that, I would treat with him about the surrender of the Fort on honorable terms if he would come to a parly, & that I would talk with him on the Subject in the Fort, passing my word for his security--he sent word he would talk with me on the parade-- we were each to bring a person to be present at our interview--

In consequence I met him on the parade outside the Fort, he had just come from his Indian tryumph all bloody and sweating-- seated himself on the edge of one of the batteaus, that had some rainwater in it, & while he washed his hands and face still reeking from the human sacrifice in which he had acted as chief priest, he told me with great exultation how he had been employed-- The Soldiers in the fort having some suspicion of treachery were got into the Blockhouse next us with their pieces loaded and kept a watchfull eye on us during our conversation-- The Colonel proceeded to tell me that it was in vain to think of persisting in the defence of the fort, that his cannon would be up in a few hours, that he knew to a man who of my people I could depend upon, with every other circumstance of my situation, and that if from a spirit of obstinacy I perseverd while there was no prospect of relief, and should stand an assault, that not a single man should be spared--

I replyed that tho my numbers were small I could depend on them, he said he knew the reverse, that there were but 35 or 36 that were really staunch & that I could depend on, and that 'twas folly to think of making a defence against such unequal numbers-- That if I surrenderd at discretion and trusted to his generosity, I should have better treatment than if I articled for terms. My answer was, Then Sir I shall abide the consequences, for I never will take a step so disgraceful! and unprecedented while I have ammunition and provision--

You will (said he) be answerable for the lives lost by your obstinacy-- I said my men had declared they would die with arms in their hands rather than surrender at discretion-- The officer who was with him said he wished we should come to some composition rather than that blood should be spilt-- I said that I would accept such terms as should consist with my honor and duty-- that as I knew what I might pretend to, it would take but little time to draw up articles-- he said he would think upon it and return in half an hour-- he returned accordingly with Captain Bowman one of his Officers, and I met him with Major Hay-- We resumed our conversation, he seemed as determined as before, I then said further discourse was vain I would return to the fort, and to prevent mistakes the firing should not recommence, till an hour after our parting, that each side might be prepared, I then gave him my hand saying we might part as gentlemen tho not as friends-- I had gone but a little way when Hajor Hay and Captain Bowman called me back, the subject was resumed, and Colonel Clarke agreed to my sending terms which he should assent to or reject, according as he should find their tenor-- They were sent that same evening, C. Clarke made his answer, and I agreed to the conditions, having first assembled the Officers and exposed to them the necessity of the step--

The Men were next called together and I convinced them that the King's service could not derive any advantage from our holding out-- some reasons already touched upon wae given them in which they acquiesced, some not mentioned in the capitulation I shall here take notice of. Viz! The Stockades had originally been so ill set up, that a man might pass his closed fist between several of them, which gave a great advantage to people armed with rifles-- The Fort was nearly surrounded by houses or other buildings which as the inhabitants had renewed their allegiance we could not consistently destroy--The N.E. Angle of of the fort projected over the sandy bank of the river, & could have been undermined by the assailants under cover-- I knew the enemy must shortly have their Cannon up, having heard the report of one while in conference with Clarke, & tho' I knew he could have but the three pounders which had belonged to Fort Chartres, their coming up would have given him such a confidence that we might be driven to accept any terms he might exact--

The poltronnerie and treachery of our french Volunteers who made half our number, with the certainty of the St. Vincennes men having joined Colol. Clarke, and the miserable state of our wounded men, all conspired to make me adopt the disagreeable terms of capitulation which are refered to No.

Before the capitulation was signed I had consulted with Major Hay on the practicability of getting off to the settlement of the Natchez on the Mississipi, where we knew we had friends, and where our number tho slender, would have been of some service-- we had in the fort two staunch pittyaugers in which the salted Buffalo had been kept during the winter we had oars and paddles sufiicient, and thought it practicable to raise some of the Stockades silently and launch the boats undiscoverd by the Enemy, but the treachery of our inmates and the necessity of leaving our wounded men behind made us relinquish this scheme which at first view had flatter'd us with an appearance of faisability--

The greater part of the night I passed in sorting papers and preparing for the disagreable ceremony of the coming day--

The mortification, disappointment and indignation I felt, may possibly be conceived if all the considerations are taken together which suggested themselves in turn-- Our views of prosecuting any design against the enemy totally overturned-- The being captives to an unprincipled motley Banditti, and the being betrayed and sacrificed by those very people who owed the preservation of their lives and property to us, and who had so lately at the foot of the altar called God to witness their sincerity and loyalty--

24th--This morning Captain Helm came to me at 7 o'Clock and gave me to understand that Colonel Clarke had been informed that we had been hard at work all night in the Fort fixing powder chests underground, that the 6 Pr. was to be loaded with grape and planted opposite the Fort gate, that whenever the enemy entered to take possession it was to be fired by a train, & the chests were to be sprung by a match-- I imputed this report to the machinations of the french but assured him I was incapable of so villainous a scheme-- he said he had told C. Clarke as much--

Another attempt of the inhabitants to induce the rebels to treat us with the utmost severity and even cruelty was the following-- A paper was presented to Colonel Clarke in which it was asserted that during our stay at St. Vincennes we had treated them in the harshest and most unjust manner, but what was judged could not fail of raising the fury and indignation of the rebels to the highest pitch, was the infamous falsehood of this paper with respect to William Williams the prisoner, who it was declared had been stripped naked, dragged thro' the streets by the hair & kicked & buffetted by the English Officers after which he was tyed to a stake and threatned to be burned alive if he did not consent to marry an Indian Woman-- This paper was signed by two of the principal inhabitants, with a view no doubt of stirring up the rebels to a severe retaliation--

At ten o'Clock we marched out with fixed Bayonettes and our Knapsacks, the terms of capitulation with other papers may be seen at the end of this Diary--(249)

Tho one of the propositions made to Colol. Clarke before he took possession, was that the stores should be deliverd up by an inventory he neglected it--

The Colors were not hoisted this morning that we might be spared the mortification of hawling them down but the Rebels had them presently hoisted with their 13 Stripes over them--

Haec memiri, & victum frustra contendere Thyrsia--

Immediately after the Americans had taken possession, they fired a salute of 13 rounds from the 6 pounder in one of the Blockhouses, but by some carlessness, a cask of cannon cartridges took fire, and blew up Captains Bowman and Widdrington of the Americans with two others of their men, and a Soldier of the King's one of our additional gunners who tho scorched and most of his skin blown from his face and arms and nearly blinded was tolerably recovered before we left Post Vincennes, being a very brave hardy fellow and suffering great torment with uncommon fortitude --(250)

The force of the explosion displaced the log work an inch & half tho' mortaised, and threw a frenchman over the wall into the street-- he fell at least 10 feet but lighting on his feet unhurt, he ran to his Officer & boasted of his alertness

Le Gras and Bosseron had the curiosity to come to the fort to see as they said quelle countenance tiendrait Mons. le Gouvaneur (251) These persons who had set an example to the wretches of the place of perjury and treason, forgot that they were indebted to me for not only the preservation of their properties, but of their lives--

In the afternoon Colonel Clarke and his Officers (so called) being assembled in the little room in the fort, He asked of me who were the persons under my orders who had been employed with the Indians, I told him they were present & would answer for themselves, which they having done, the Colol. orderd one of his Officers to go for the smith & direct him to make irons for them all, which should confine the neck hands and feet--

I was exceedingly shocked at this speech, and desired Colol. C. to walk out of the room, when I desired him to explain what I was to understand by the order he had just given-- he said he had taken a solemn resolution to make examples of all who had acted with the Indians without exception--

I said whatever were his resolutions, he must remember that he had just put his hand to a capitulation by which we were or ought to be secured from any act of violence--

He said he had taken an oath & was fixed in his resolution-- I replyed that if he was capable of acting in that manner, he must renounce all pretensions to the character of an Officer or a gentleman-- He smiled contemptuously, but I observed that it was not a matter to trifle upon, that these Gentlemen had done no other than their duty in obeying the orders I had given them, that I stood responsible for their actions, and since my situation had reduced me so low as to ask a favor of him, I must request he would put me in irons rather than them-- he paid as little attention to this-- I remarkd that his behaviour was unaccountable, to act in such a manner and at the same time permit me to carry a loaded pistol in my girdle-- He broke off abruptly, & returning to his Company, orderd Mr. Chabert, Reaume, La Mothe and Maisonville to be put prisoners--

This day the scalps of the poor murtherd Indians were hung up just at our tent doors, pour nous encourager--

25th This day one Raimbault (252) a young man who had served as a volunteer with the Indians was brought into the fort with a rope about his neck and his Judges were in the act of hanging him, when some of the French from the Ilinois interposed and he was taken down from the tree half strangled--

Each instance of substantial Justice gave me no pleasing prospect of what we might expect further from such Picarros--

Colonel Clarke told me this day, that if Charles Baubin & Hypolite Baulon (who accompanied the Indians on the scout to Kaskasquias, & had carried my letters) had done their duty that he with 4 of his Officers, should have been my prisoners but that I had been betrayed-- (253) //By this account, the reason became sufficiently apparent why some of the gentry who went off to Detroit, were so ingenious in framing excuses--// The party of Indians had placed themselves in ambuscade, on the road between Kaskasquias, & Cahokia & must effectually have secured Colonel Clarke and his Officers--

Colol. Clarke told me allso some particulars of his marcb which were very extraordinary-- He had left the Ilinois when the Waters were out & had marched for 15 days successively, his people being exposed all that time to the inconveniencies of marching thro a flooded Country-- They set out without provision trusting entirely to the Buffaloe or other game they might chance to fall in with on their route-- The greater part of his people were half naked-- His powder was all damaged before he arrived at St. Vincennes-- a nights frost must have destroyed his whole party--

Colonel Clarke's having succeeded under such circumstances illustrates the following remark made by some author whose name I do not recollect // "A Sanguine temper forsees few difficulties and sometimes owes success to a fortunate rashness which is esteemed by shortsighted people as taking Fortune in the willing mood--tis true Fortune favors the bold, but the rash have no pretensions to her favor--"//

As we sat together this evening the Colonel giving a loose to his military ardor said that he expected shortly to see the whole race of Indians extirpated, that for his part he would never spare Man woman or child of them on whom he could lay his hands-- I represented to him the Indians having so far foregone their usual habits as to have saved the lives of several of their captives and desired him to enquire of Henry the Armourer who had been at Detroit and been witness to the treatment of Prisoners, which when the Colonel had done and received such answers as were indeed consistent with truth, Clarke turned to me and said Sir I find I have been mistaken in your character & facts have been grosly misrepresented-- On his renewing his threats against the Indians, I warned him against exasperating a people who were so capable of ravaging the frontiers, & being renderd implacable by severities, at the same time I quoted Mr: Gay, as authority for humanity being the proper companion to true courage "Cowards are cruel, but the brave" he appeard rather checkd "love mercy, and delight to save" and mortifyed--

26th--Captain Helm was sent up the river with a detachment to intercept the convoy from Miamis with provision &ca. Le Gras and Bosseron offerd their services and went, as did young Chapoton, whose father was a Captain of Militia at Detroit--

Among Colonel Clarke's followers were, Charleville a young man from the Ilinois whose father was one of the most considerable of the Inhabitants there-- McCarty-- Bowman brother to Colol. Bowman at Harrodsburgh who lent me a horse for my journey thro the Country, and went to Williamsburgh to represent to the Govr. and Council, the injustice and severity of their proceedings-- Widdrington-- Williams-- these 5 were captains, Brown, Bayley, Giraud, Rogers, Lieutenants-- Lavoine[,] Montgomery, Chaplin Ensigns Daniel Murray Commissary of Stores, a fellow who haunted us after our surrender, & by flattery and cunning attempted to get into our confidence-- Kennedy, commissary of provisions, a vagrant who plyed the prisoners with liquor to get them to enlist with the rebels-- Maisonville brother to Alexis & François-- Sills the son of the Innholder at Trois rivieres-- Two brothers of the name of Antayas--

The manage of the French inhabitants at the Ilinois as related to me by Colol. Clarke is not to be forgot--

On the first report of my arrival, they expected to be attacked at Kaskasquias on which the young men went to Colonel Clarke and offerd their service to bear arms, at the same time their Fathers Uncles & told him they had sworn allegiance to the English government at the time of the surrender of Canada & could not consistently with their oath bear arms against the English, but that they should not act in any manner against the Americans-- Thus mediators were to intercede for their friends and relations which ever side got the advantage--

I have reason to think that Lang--e and Gaut--r were either false to their trust, or imposed on, from the accounts I had afterwards from Monsr. de Li--ot, which I had no reason to disbelieve-- else a diversion from Michillimackinac might have kept the Rebels at Caskaskias till reinforcements in the Spring should have enabled me to have cleared the Country of them-- (254)

I applyed to Colol. Clarke several times for naming the day of our departure that I might has [sic] biscuit baked for the March in vain--

Two of his men acquainted some of the soldiers who informd me of it, to be on my guard as there was a design of shooting me thro' the head formed by some of the rebel gentry, but I thought best not to appear to credit it, however twice in the night I was alarmed by two drunken men who took their pieces & were advancing to the tent where Major Hay and I slept in the fort, but providentially one of us was awake each time and alarmed the other-- we complained of this to Colol. Clarke who said he would make enquiry, but it did not appear any one was punished, tho our report was confirmed--

One of these men accompanied us when we were sent off, but the poor creature was afterwards very inoffensive, and was one of those sometime after wounded by a party of Indians who killed William Moyres, Colol. Clarke's express, & carried some of his comrades prisoners to Detroit--(255)

March 5th. The Party under Captain Helm returnd having got possession of the convoi of Provisions from the Miamis--

To my great surprize I saw Mr. Philip Dejean who had acted as Justice of peace at Detroit who was taken prisoner with a packett of letters for me, (256) which he had not the presence of mind to destroy tho the day before he had had information of St. Vincennes being in the hands of the Rebels-- with this convoy came cloathing and private Stores for myself and the other officers, every article of which Colol. C. made prize of never offering us the smallest part, not even asking us to drink a glass of our own wines--

Before our setting off I found that some of the Soldiers and even others of whom I had conceived a better opinion, had made their terms with Colol. Clarke without saying anything to me, & even did not come to take leave when we set off. CC L. &ca-- Joseph 1' Italien behaved better than most, tho' I had entertained but an indifferent opinion of him whilst at Detroit--

I was shown about this time those articles of the treaty of alliance between France and America that the Congress thought proper to have printed and dispersed, these were sent to C. Clarke by the Governor of Virginia together with a commission authorizing him to act as commanding officer of the Eastern llinois--

Colonel Clarke told me we were to go by water to tbe falls of Ohio, and thence by land to Williarnsburgh, that he should send fifteen horses to the falls for our convenience-- this however was forgot-- We immediately procured what shoes & Moca sins we could for our men, and as we were to have a troublesome march thro the woods and over mountains, we disposed of several things to tbe Colonel and his officers, expecting that our wounded men and such as he chose should remain would be well treated on this account, but we were not long of this way of thinking for the provision allotted us for our Journey to tbe falls of Ohio was 10 days rations of Flour and salt pork, with 14 gallons of Rum, for our whole party being 50 in the whole, 27 being the number of the Garrison which Colol. Clarke sent off, and 23 the number of our guard, including two Officers, Captain Williams & Lt. Rogers, who both behaved very civilly all the way & as kindly as they durst-- (257)

I was very impatient to leave this detestable place, where every object reminded me of tne baseness treachay or ingratitude of the inhabitants--