Getting Control of Aquatic Nuisance Species in Indiana
Gwen White, Ph.D.
IDNR Division of Fish & Wildlife
Table of Contents
- Pathways and Regulations
- When Pets Get Too Big to Flush
- Aquarium Fish in Indiana Waters
- Piranha and Pacu (2000-2002)
- Snails in Backyard Ponds and Aquariums
- Other Aquarium Pets
- "Old" Illegal Animal Possession List
- Snakehead Fish - 28 Species
- Snakehead Fish - Continued
- Aquaculture and Bait
- Range of Eurasian Species
- Bighead Carp
- Silver Carp
- Black Carp
- Controlled Species - Grass Carp
- Anglers, Divers, and Boaters
- White Perch
- White Perch - Continued
- Imported Fish Diseases and Parasites
- Genetic Engineering Another Kind of "Exotic"
- Weedy Exotic Plants
- Prevent Transport Between Lake Michigan and the Ohio River Basins
- Indiana State Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Management Plan
- Indiana ANS Management Plan - Continued
- ANS Plan Components
- First Meeting of the ANS Management Plan
Pathways and Regulations
Anglers move and release fish
Aquaculture and bait industry
- plant control regulations
Pet owners release aquarium species
Rerouting waterway connections spread species
When Pets Get Too Big to Flush
Wells Catfish from Europe
Aquarium Fish in Indiana Waters
- 9.9-inch tinfoil barb
- 10-inch tiger oscar
- 5.9-inch bala shark
- two Oriental weatherfish loaches
- 20-inch Aruana from Lake Hobart (below)
Piranha and Pacu (2000-2002)
- 15 inch pacu, from Lake Shafer, White Co.
- 15 inch pacu, gravel pit, Johnson Co.
- 14 inch pacu, Griffy Lake, Monroe Co.
- 2.7 lbs pacu, from St Joseph River, St Joseph Co.
- 8.75 inch pacu, private pond, Delaware Co.
- two 10 inch piranhas, White River, Delaware Co.
- seven piranha, city park pond, Boone Co.
- piranha, Cedar Lake, Lake Co.
- unconfirmed piranha, private ponds, Clay Co.
Snails in Backyard Ponds and Aquariums
Chinese Mystery Snail
Stout and Perry K electric generating plants on White River
Photo Credit: IPALCO
Prefers enriched, calm waters… The conical shape makes it really good at clogging cooling water condenser tubes. It is an operculated species, thus, it can simply "slam the door" and wait for an intermittent biocide to pass by.”
– Terry Hogan, IPALCO
Other Aquarium Pets
- Three Allgators, Wabash River, Huntington
- 48-inch Caiman, private pond, Marion Co.
"Old" Illegal Animal Possession List
- Walking Catfish (Clariidae)
- Tuenose & Round Gobies
- Zebra and Quagga Mussels
- Asiatic Clam
Snakehead Fish - 28 Species
- From Africa (tropical) and Asia (northern).
- Imported as seafood and aquarium pets.
- Voracious predator; can crawl on land for up to 3 days.
- Found in waters of seven states, incl. Maine and Florida.
- Prevent introduction to Indiana waters!
Snakehead Fish - Continued
Exotic Snakehead (top) has a very long anal fin.
Native Bowfin (bottom) has a short anal fin.
Aquaculture and Bait
- Agri/aqua culture – humans move species around for social uses
- Asian carps have potential use as food fish and biocontrols (snails, plants)
- Bait fish may be raised or wild-caught
- Self imposed protocols to monitor contamination with exotics
Range of Eurasian Species
Image Credit: MICRA
From large rivers and lakes of eastern China and Siberia. Up to 90 pounds. Filter feeder, tearing nets. Competes for food with native fish fry, paddlefish, buffalo, salmon, walleye, perch, mussels. In Indiana – Wabash, Tippecanoe, White, and Ohio Rivers. Prevent spread to Lake Michigan basin!
- From Asian lowland rivers.
- Up to 3 ft long, 60 pounds.
- Filter feeder, “flying” fish.
- Dominates Mississippi River pools, consisting of up to 90 percent of fish caught in some areas.
- In Indiana –Wabash and Ohio Rivers.
- Prevent spread to Lake Michigan basin
Anglers, Divers, and Boaters
- Clean live wells; don’t dump bait buckets.
- No live carp as bait; live gizzard shad only at Brookville. Live goldfish allowed.
- Don’t release wild caught fish into other waters, including your pond.
- Clean diving gear - zebra mussel in gravel pits near Muncie, used for SCUBA diving.
- Native to Atlantic coast, spread into Great Lakes in 1940s.
- Eats eggs of walleye and white bass; feed on minnows; competes with native yellow perch.
- In Wolf and Cedar Lakes (Lake Co.), Koontz Lk (Marshall).
- Rapidly dominates fishery 88% by number 67% by weight in Cedar Lk.
- Prevent spread to other inland lakes in Indiana!
White Perch / Native White Bass
Exotic White perch (top) no distinct lines or stripes on sides.
Native White bass (bottom) has lines on sides.
Imported fish diseases and parasites
- Trout and salmon (whirling disease)
- Bass (largemouth bass virus)
- Carp, goldfish, and minnows (spring viremia)
- Yellow perch (heterosporis)
- Unknown others!
Sea lamprey control: $8 million / yr
Lake trout restoration: $12 million / yr
Genetic engineering another kind of “exotic”
- Atlantic Salmon in net pens off the coast:
- Grows faster on less feed.
- Disease resistance (difficult to treat sick fish).
- Research on 30 species - carp, crayfish, shrimp…
- Risk management tools:
- research on mating preference
- viability of young (sterility)
- competition with natives
- modification of native fish behavior
Weedy exotic plants
- Eurasian watermilfoil found in 173 lakes in northern Indiana (56 percent of surface area)
- Lake associations spend $800,000 per year on chemical control of exotic plants like Eurasian watermilfoil.
- 200 permits per year for lake plant control.
- Plants spreads by rooting of fragments.
Prevent transport between Lake Michigan (a fishery worth $4 billion per year) and the Ohio River basins
Indiana State Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Management Plan!
Indiana ANS Management Plan
- A comprehensive statewide plan for education, prevention, early detection, regulations, and control measures.
- Three professionally facilitated stakeholder workgroup meetings over nine months.
- State eligibility for federal cost-share funding upon approval of the plan by the US Fish & Wildlife Service. Adjacent states are receiving up to $100,000 per year for exotic species management programs.
ANS Plan Components
- Exotic ANS background – agency roles
- Policy background
- Statutory authority and regulations
- Programs in agencies and organizations
- Management actions (goals, strategies, tasks)
- Prevent new introductions
- Limit spread of established species
- Reduce ecological / economic impacts
- Program monitoring and evaluation.
First meeting of the ANS Management Plan
Tuesday, April 15, 2004, 10am-3pm
Garrison, Ft Harrison State Park, Indianapolis
pet store dealers
Develop steering committee and project reviewers.
Identify issues and solutions.